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Histology Test 3 Brendan > Female Reproductive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Female Reproductive System Deck (108):
1

The two major functions of the ovaries are _____ (estrogen and progesterone production) and _______ (oocytes and ova production)

steroidogenesis
gametogenesis

2

The ovarian capsule (_____ _____) is a layer of dense irregular connective tissue

tunica albuginea

3

The ovaries are covered by a simple cuboidal or squamos epithelium known as the _____ epithelium

germinal

4

The ovarian _____ contains ovarian follicles

cortex

5

The ovarian _____ contains large blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves in a loose CT stroma

medulla

6

The three types of ovarian follicles are ___ ____ and _____

primordial
growing
graafian

7

The primordial follicle is a ____ ____ covered by 1 layer of squamous follicular cells

primary oocyte

8

The key feature of an oocyte is presence of many golgi regions, mitochondria, and rER profiles, all together forming a _____ ____

balbiani body

9

Oocytes are arrested in _____ of meiosis 1 and may remain in this stage for many years

prophase

10

Primordial follicles have a large, acentric ____

nucleus

11

___ cells are separated from stroma by a basal lamina and attach to each other by desmosomes

follicular

12

What is the growing cycle of an oocyte? Primordial follicle -->

primordial-->primary-->multilamellar-->secondary-->graafian

13

The three kinds of growing follicles are : ____, ___, and _____

primary
multilamellar
secondary

14

Primary follicles have an amorphous layer called ___ ____ that is acidophillic and surrounds the oocyte

zona pellucida

15

Primary _____ follicles develop from primordial follicles and have 1 layer of _____ follicular cells surrounding the oocyte

unilaminar
cuboidal

16

____ primary follicles develop from unilaminar folicles by proliferation of ____ cells

multilaminar
follicular

17

Multilaminar follicles have several layers of follicular cells called ____ cells

granulosa

18

Stromal cells form a sheath around granulosa cells called the ____ ____ in multilaminar cells

theca folliculi

19

The theca folliculi is divided into an inner cellular cuboidal layer called _____ ____ and an outer fibrous layer called ___ ____

theca interna
theca externa

20

Secondary (___) follicles are established when fluid (liquor folliculi) accumulates in intercellular spaces between granulosa cells

antral

21

The liquor folliculi fills intercellular spaces and coalesces, forming a single large cavity called the _____

antrum

22

____ stimulates granulosa cells to convert androgens made by theca interna cells into estrogens and to manufacture membrane receptors of _____ hormone

FSH
lutenizing

23

____ from the oocyte and narrow processes from the granulosa cells extend into the zona pellucida

microvilli

24

____ cells contact each other via gap junctions and form ga junctions with the oocyte plasma membrane

granulosa

25

The theca ____ makes androgens, which are transferred to ____ cells and converted into estrogens

interna
granulosa

26

The _____ (mature) follicle is the one follicle among secondary follicles that will ovulate

graafian

27

The graafian follicle has an ____ positioned oocyte located on a small mound of granulosa cells called the _____ ____, which projects into the antrum

acentrically
cumulus oophorus

28

The ____ ____ is mainly collagenous and contains many blood vessels which nourish the theca interna

theca externa

29

The primary oocyte completes its first meiotic division just prior to ovulation, forming a ____ ____ and the first ___ ____

secondary oocyte
polar body

30

After its first meiotic division, the secondary oocyte beings its second meiotic division but is blocked at ____. When the sperm contacts the secondary oocyte, a reaction with _____ enzymes initiates the second meiotic division

metaphase
acrosomal

31

Sperm fertilizes the ___ ovum that results from the second meiotic division

haploid

32

Acrosomal reaction causes the ___ ____ on the oocyte to breakdown so that other sperm cannot attach

zona pellucida

33

Ovulation occurs in response to a surge of _____ as the secondary oocyte and the cumulus cells (____ ____) leave the ruptured follicle to enter the fimbriated oviduct end

LH
Corona radiata

34

The ____ ____ is made of granulosa lutein cells and theca lutein cells

corpus luteum

35

The corpus luteum is a temporary ____ gland, whose formation depends on LH

endocrine

36

Granulosa lutein cells are large, pale, and have abundant sER and rER. They manufacture most of the body's _______ and convert androgens from theca lutein cells into _____

progesterone
estradiol

37

Theca lutein cells are small and concentrated mainly on the corpus luteum _____. They manufacture _____ and small amounts of estrogen and progesteone

periphery
androstenedione

38

The ____ ____ is a small scar formed from the corpus luteum remnants after function ceases and it degenerates

corpus albicans

39

____ follicles are those that are undergoing degneration

atretitc

40

Atretic follicles are commonly present in the ovary; after a graafian follicle ovulates, the remaining _____ Follicles degenerate

secondary

41

Oviducts/fallopian tubes have a wall consisting of ___ ____ and ____

mucosa, muscularis, serosa

42

Fallopian tubes are divided into 4 regions: ____, ____, ____, and ____

infidibulum
ampulla
isthmus
intramural piortion

43

The mucosa of the oviduct has extensive ____ folds in the infindibulum

longitudinal

44

The epithelium of the fallopian tube is made of ____ columnar and 2 cell types: ______ and _____

simple
peg, ciliated

45

____ cells make nutrient-rich secretions to nourish spermatozoa and the pre-implantation embryo

peg

46

____ cells have cilia that primarily beat towards the uterus lumen. They may help ___ transport to the uterus

ciliated
embryo

47

The lamina propria of uterine tubes is sparse, consisting of _____ CT with reticular fibers, fibroblasts, mast cells, and lymphoid cells

loose

48

The muscularis of the uterine tube consists of a poorly defined inner ____ layer and outer ____ smooth muscle layer

circular
longitudinal

49

Rythmic contraction of the ____ may assist the pre-implantation embryo in moving towards the uteris

muscularis

50

The serosa of the uterine tube covers the oviduct outer surface and is composed of a simple ____ epithelium over a CT layer

squamous

51

The isthmus contains a large amount of ____ and a ____ lumen

muscularis
narrow

52

The uterus is suibdivided into 3 parts:

fundus
body
cervix

53

the uterine wall consists of the ____, ____, and _____ (or serosa)

endometrium
myometrium
adventitia

54

____ is present over surfaces within the peritoneal cavity, while ____ is present along uterine retroperitoneal surfaces

serosa
adventitia

55

The uterus endometrium is a _____ ____ epithelium with secretory ___ cells

simple columnar
mucous

56

The stroma of the endometrium resembles mesencyhymal CT, with ____ fibers and _____-shaped cells

reticular
stellate

57

The uterus endometrium is divided into 2 indistinct layers:

functional and basal

58

The ____ layer is the thick superficial endometrial layer that is sloughed off and reestablished monthly during changes of the menstrual cycle

functional

59

the ____ layer is the deep endometrial layer that is _____ during menstruation. It has endometrial glands and basal cells which provide a source for endometrial ____ after the other layer is sloughed off

basal
preserved
reepithelialization

60

The endometrial vascular supply consists of 2 kinds of arteries: ____ and ____

coiled and straight

61

____ arteries extend into the functional layer and undergo changes during different stages of the menstrual cycle

coiled

62

____ arteries do not undergo cyclic changes. They terminate in the ____ layer

straight
basal

63

___ causes development of the oocyte

FSH

64

The proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle is driven by ____

estrogen

65

Ovulation is driven by ____

LH

66

____ is the primary hormone in the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle

progesterone

67

The uterine myometrium consists of a thick uterine ____ ____ _____

smooth muscle tunic

68

The uterus myometrium consists of 3 layers, an inner and outer longitudinal layer and a thick middle circular layer that is richly ____. This layer is also called the ____ ____

vascularized
stratum vasculare

69

The uterus ____ thickens during pregnancy due to smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia. These smooth muscle cells develop many ____ ____ near the end of pregnancy to help coordinate muscle contraction

myometrium
gap junctions

70

During partuition, smooth muscle cells undergo powerful contraction triggered by ____ and ____

oxytocin, prostaglandins

71

What are the phases of the menstrual cycle?

menstrual
proliferative
secretory

72

In the menstrual phase, ____ ____ (menses) enters the uterus lumen from the endometrium

hemorrhagic discharge

73

The menstrual phase is driven by contraction and relaxation of ____ arteries due to low levels of ____ and _____

coiled
progesterone, estrogen

74

Prolonged arterial ____ of the coiled arteries causes ischemia, while sudden and intermittent ____ ruptures their walls, flodding the stroma with blood and detaching the epithelium

vasoconstriction
vasodilation

75

The ____ layer is not sloughed off during menstruation since it is supplied by short ___ vessels that do not undergo prolonged vasoconstriction

basal
straight

76

In the ____ phase, the entire functional layer is renewed and glands, CT, and coiled arteries are repaired

proliferative

77

In the proliferative phase, the epithelial lining is renewed by mitotic activity of cells in ____ ____ of the basal layer

uterin glands

78

The ____ phase begins shortly after ovulation and is characterized by endometrial thickening due to edema and secretion by endometrial glands

secretory

79

In the secretory phase, glands become ____ and cells in the lumen accumulate large amounts of ____

coiled
glycogen

80

In there secretory phase, there is also increased ____ of arteries. They become longer and extending into the superficial parts of the ____ layer

coiling
functional

81

_____ promotes watery mucous secretion in the cervix during the proliferative phase

estrogen

82

After ovulation, the mucous of the cervix becomes more ____ to prevent spread of bacteria from the vagina

viscous

83

The cervix contains ____ ____ (mucous secreting) epithelium besides the inferior portion, which is covered by ___ ____ ____ epithelium

simple columnar
stratified squamous non-keratinized

84

Branched ___ glands secrete a serous fluid near the ovulation time which facilitates spermatazoa entry into the uterine lumen

cervical

85

Before partuition, the ____ dilates and softens due to the lysis of collagen in response to the hormone _____

cervix
relaxin

86

The vagina is composed of 3 layers:

inner mucosa, middle muscularis, external adventitia

87

The vagina is circumscribed by ____ ___ at the external orfice

skeletal muscle

88

The mucosa epithelium is ____ ____ ____ and contains ____, which is used by vaginal bacteria to make lactic acid to lower the pH during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle and inhibits pathogen invasion

stratified squamous non-keratinized
glycogen

89

The ____ ___ of the vagina is composed of fibroelastic CT tissue and is highly vascular in the deeper portion

lamina propria

90

The muscularis of the vagina is made of irregularly arranged ____ muscle layers interspersed with ____ fibers

smooth
elastic

91

The ____ is made of fibroelastic connective tissue that fixes the vagina to the surrounding structures

adventitia

92

Mammary glands are composed of about 2 dozen ____ ____ glands. Each gland has its own ___ sinus and a duct that opens at the nipple apex

compound tubuloalveolar
lactiferous

93

____ and ____ ductules develop in females after puberty due to hormonal changes. There is also an increase in ____ tissue in the stroma

lobules, terminal
adipose

94

____ glands are characteristic of adult, non-pregnant females. They are composed of _____ sinuses and ducts lined primarily by stratified cuboidal epithelium.

resting
lactiferous

95

The lowest layer of resting mammary glands consists of ____ cells that have a basal lamina separating the epithelial components from the underlying stroma

myoepithelial

96

In active (lactating) mammary glands, ____ develop. This occurs only during pregnancy as _____ ductules proliferate

alveoli
terminal

97

____ cells are cuboidal secretory cells lining the mammary gland alveoli

alveolar

98

Alveolar cells are surrounded by an incomplete _____ layer that contains lipid droplets and vesicles containing milk protein

myoepithelial

99

Alveolar cell secretion occurs by 2 different mechanisms: Lipids are released by ____ mechanism while proteins are released via _____ mechanism.

apocrine
merocrine (exocytosis)

100

The nipple contains dense collagenous connective tissue interlaced with smooth muscle fibers that acts as a ____. It contains ____ duct openings

sphincter
lactiferous

101

In a _____ ____, epithelial cells are scraped from the cervix lining and examined for cancer

papanicolaou (pap) smear

102

Carcinoma of the cervix originates from _____ ____ ____ epithelial ells.

stratified squamous non-keratinized

103

Cervical cancer is caused by the ____ ____ virus

human papiloma

104

____ is a condition in which uterine endometrial tissue exists in the pelvic peritoneal cavity. As the endometrium is shed, ____ occurs in the peritoneal cavity, causing severe pain and formation of cysts and adhesions

endometriosis
bleeding

105

_____ is a benign smooth muscle tumor that occurs frequently in the uterus

leiomyoma

106

In an _____ pregnancy, there is implantation of the early embryo in the oviduct wall or other abnormal site

ectopic

107

Breast cancer may originate from ductal epithelial lining (_____ carcinoma) or terminal ductules (____ carcinoma)

ductal
lobular

108

In ____ disease, there is eczema of the nipple

paget's