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Flashcards in Urinary System Deck (136):
1

Urinary system plays a role in blood pressure regulation. ______ cells synthesize renin, which initiates converstion of ______ to ______

juxtaglomerular
angiotensin
angiotensin 1

2

Urinary system also has an endocrine function. Peritubuluar capillary endothelial cells and interstitial cells of the cortex and medulla synthesize _____

erythropoietin

3

Kidneys have a thin connective tissue capsule with 2 layers: an inner layer of _____ and an outer layer of ______ ____ ___

myofibroblasts
dense irregular CT

4

Kidneys are divided into an outer ____ that receives 90% of the blood supply and an inner _____

cortex
medulla

5

the functional unit of the kidney is the _____ or _____ + collecting tubule called the _____ tubule

nephron, nephron
uriniferous

6

The _____ of the kidney is the concave region of the kidney where the renal pelvis is located that continues arteries, veins, lymph, and nerves

hilum

7

The ____ is a cone shaped expansion of the upper end of the ureter. It is continuous with ____ renal calyces, which branch into ____ calyces, which end at the _____ of the medullary pyramids

pelvis
major
minor
papilla

8

The cortex is the superficial kidney layer consisting of primarily renal ____ and ____ tubulues

corpuscles
convoluted

9

There are no renal corpuscles in the _____

medulla

10

Renal _____ are extensions of cortical tissue that run between adjacent renal pyramids

columns

11

____ ____ are groups of straight tubules that extend from the base of each renal pyramid into the cortex

medullary rays

12

There are no _____ in the renal medulla

glomeruli

13

Renal pyramids form the bulk of the renal medulla and consist primarily of the ______ and _______

thin limbs of henle
collecting tubules

14

The renal ___ is located at the apex of each renal pyramid. The tip of it is ____ and projects into the minor calyx lumen

papilla
perforated

15

Renal _____ is the connective tissue of the kidney and is sparse

interstitium

16

The interstitiam is mostly fibroblasts and _____ cells. Fibroblasts near peritubular capillaries produce ____

mononuclear
erythropoietin

17

In the medulla there are ____ along blood vessels supplying the loops of henle and ____ cells

pericytes
interstitial

18

Interstitial cells are found between loops of henle and _____ ducts and vasa recta. They are elongated nuclei with ____ droplets and may synthesize _____ 1 which is converted to _____ 2 in the liver and is a vasodilator

collecting
lipid
medullipin
medullipin

19

The renal lobule is an area of cortex surrounded on either side by an _____ ____. This area has many ____, and all drain into the same collecting duct

interlobular artery
nephrons

20

The two types of nephrons are _____ and _____

cortical
juxtomedullary

21

4 things nephrons consist of :

renal corpuscle
Proximal convoluted tubule
loop of henle
distal convoluted tubule

22

Cortical nephrons are in the outer part of the cortex. They have ____ loops of henle and many ____ ____

short
peritubular capillaries

23

Juxtamedullary nephrons have ____ loops of henle that run in association with ____ ____ far down in the medulla. These are responsible for establishing the interstitial concentration gradient in the ____

long
vasa recta
medulla

24

What is the pathway from glomerulus to collecting duct?

glomerulus-->proximal convoluted tubule--thin limb-loop of henle---distal convoluted tubule--collecting duct

25

the medulla is divided into an inner and outer zone. The outer zone is divided into inner and outer stripe. The ____ stripe has no thin limbs and only thick limbs. The ____ stripe has thin limbs and thick limbs

outer
inner

26

The inner medulla consists of ___, and ___, but no ____

collecting ducts and thin limbs,
no thick limbs

27

___ nephrons do not protrude into the inner medulla while ____ nephrons do.

corticol
juxtamedullary

28

The renal artery enters the kidney at the ____ and leads into ____ arteries

hilum
interlobar

29

Interlobar arteries run between renal ________ and divide into ____ arteries that travel along the corticomedullary junction and feed into ____ arteries

pyramids
arcuate
interlobular

30

Interlobular arteries enter cortical tissue and travel between adjacent ____ ____. These then lead into ____ (glomerular) arterioles, enter the glomerulus, and leave as _____ arteriorles

medullary rays
afferent
efferent

31

The blood circulation of the kidney is as follows: _____-->_____-->_____--->_____--->______

afferent arteriole
capillaries of glomerulus
efferrent arteriole
capillary network
venule

32

Efferent arterioles associated with cortical nephrons leave the golmerulus and give rise to extensive _____ ____ networks high in the cortex and ____ ___ near the corticomedullary junction

peritubular capillary
vasa recta

33

There are/are not anastamoses between interlobar arteries

are not-
the can cause focal necrosis

34

____ ___ arise from efferent arterioles supplying juxtamedullary nephrons. These are long, thin vessels that follow a straight path into the ____ and renal ____ where they form capillaries and loop back, increasing in diameter toward the ____ boundary

vasa recta
medulla, papilla
corticomedullary

35

Vasa recta are closely associated with ____ ____ and supply nutrients and oxygen

henle's loops

36

Capillaries play a critical role in ____ exchange with the interstitum

countercurrent

37

____ veins are formed by a convergence of superficial cortical veins which drain the outermost cortex layers

stellate

38

___ cortical veins drain the deeper regions of the cortex

deep

39

____ veins receive both stellate and deep cortical veins. These join ___ veins which empty into ___ veins. These converge to form a branch of the renal vein, which exits at the kidney ____

interlobular
arcruate
interlobar
hilum

40

The renal corpuscle consists of the ____ and ____

glomerulus, bowman's capsule

41

The bowman's capsule has a ____ layer of simple squamous epithelium that lines the outer wall. There is also a ____ layer of modified simple squamous epithelium composed of _____ that covers the glomuerula capillaires

parietal
visceral
podocytes

42

____ space is the area between the visceral and parietal layers

bowman's

43

the _____ pole is the area of bowman's capsule where the afferent and efferent glomerular arteriole enters and leaves the glomerulus

vascular

44

the ____ pole is the area of bowman's capsule where the urinary space becomes continous with the proximal convoluted lumen

urinary

45

The filtration barrier of the renal corpuscle is ____-____-____

fenestrated epithelium-basement membrane-podocytes

46

The ___ ____ is a capillary tuft that extends into bowman's capsule

renal glomerulus

47

Capillaries of the renal glomerulus are lined by ____ _____

fenestrated endotheliunm

48

The endothelium of the renal glomerulus sits on a thick basal lamina that is shared with _____

podocytes

49

The interstitial tissue located between glomeruluar capillaries is composed of ____ cells and an amporphous extracellullar _____

mesangial
matrix

50

mesangial cell functions: 1. ____ support for capillarires 2. _______ turnover of glomeruluar basement membrane material (ie large protein molecules, debris) 3. _____-regulate blood flow by decreasing the filtration surface area.

mechanical
phagocytic
contractile

51

Mesangial cell functions cont... 4: source of _____ and ____ that cause constriction of afferent and efferent arterioles. 5. respond to ____ and _______

prostoglandins endothelins
angiotensin 2, atrial natriuretic peptide

52

Mesangial cells can proliferate and synthesize _____ material and _____

matrix
collagen

53

Immunoglobulins and complement molecules can enter mesangial matrix and induce ____ production by mesangial cells

cytokine

54

Proximal convuluted tubules can be identified histologically by a _____ brush border

disrupted

55

Podocytes are modified epithelial cells that have primary processes that give rise to secondary processes called ____ that from the visceral layer of bowman's capsules.

pedicels

56

Pedicels are secondary podocytes that wrap around ____ capillaries and interdigitate with other pedicels. They have a transmembrane sialoglycoportein that extends into the glycocalyx coating called ____, which contributes to the ___ charge in the glomerular epithelium

glomeruluar
podcalyxin
negative

57

_____ ____ are spaces between adjacent pedicels with filamentous diaphragms that bridge each space

filtration slits

58

The renal filtration barrier is glomerular capillary ____ ____, basal lamina, and filtration slits with ____ between pedicels

fenestrated endothelium
diaphragms

59

The filtration slit consists of the protein _____ anchored to actin filiaments in the pedicles by protien CD2AP. The basement membrane is ____ charged due to ____ content and repels ____ charged proteins

nephrin
negatively, glycosaminoglycans
negatively

60

The renal filtration barrier allows H2O, ions, and small molecules to pass from the blood into the urinary space but prevents passage of ____ or ____ _____ proteins

large, negatively charged

61

The ____ ____ ____ drains bowman's space at the urinary pole

PROXIMAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE

62

The Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) is lined by a simple ____ epithelium with a _____ brush border, ____ vesicles, and abundant ____ that have acid phosphatase activity

cuboidal
microvilli
pinocytotic
lysosomes

63

PCT has abdundant lysosomes for uptake and breakdown of ____ to _____

peptides, amino acids

64

The PCT functiosn to reabsorb all of the ____, amino acids, and small proteins, and most of the ____ and ____ from the filtrate

glucose
water, NaCl

65

transport of ___ and ____ establishes the osmotic gradient for H2O absorption

NaCl, glucose

66

The ____ secretes organic acids such as creatine, bases, and certain foreign substances while exchanging H+ ions into the interstitium for ____ ions in the filtrate

PCT
bicarbonate

67

There is no osmolarity change in the ultrafiltrate of the _____

PCT

68

___are the most abundant tubules by volume

PCT

69

After the PCT, we have the ____ ____ limb of henle's loop

descending thick

70

the descending thick limb is lined by a simple ____ epithelium, has fewer ____, smaller mitochondria and a prominent ___ _____

cuboidal
lysosomes
brush border

71

___ is absorbed, while ____ is not in the descending thick limb

H2O, NaCl

72

The _____ ____ of henle's loop is composed of the descending segment, a loop, and an ascending segment in _____ nephrons. Cortical nephrons may only have the ____ portion

thin limb
juxtamedullary
descending

73

The thin limb of henle's loop is lined by simple ____ epithelial cells, with cell nuclei bulging into the ____

SQUAMOUS (unlike PCT and thick limb)
lumen

74

The descending thin limb is _____ to H2O while the ascending thin limb is _____ to H2O

permeable
impermeable

75

The sodium-potassium ATPase pump of the ascending thin limb of henle functions to reabsorb ____. Some ____ such as furosamide inhibit reabsorption of this and increase excretion of it and H2O

NaCl
diuretics

76

The ascending thick limb of Henle's loop is lined by ____ epithelial cells with a ____ located nucleus. The mitochondria are compartmentalized within basal plasma membrane ____

cuboidal
apically
infoldings

77

The ascending thick limb returns to the ____ ___ of origin. In this area it lies in close contact with the afferent and efferent glomerular arterioles and becomes modified to form the _____ _____, which is part of the juxtaglomeruluar apparatus

renal corpuscle
macula densa

78

The ____ ____ is 3-5 cuboidal nuclei lined up next to the vascular pole

macula densa

79

The distal convoluted tubule is continuous with the ____ ____ and is similar histologically to the ____ ____ limb of henle's loop

macula densa
ascending thick

80

Cells of the DCT have a shorter and wider ____ than the PCT, and lack a ___ ____

lumen
brush border

81

The DCT reabsorbs ___ ions from the filtrate and actively transports them into the renal interstitium. This process is stimulated by ____

Na
aldosterone

82

The DCT excretes ___, ____, and ___ ions into the filtrate from the interstitium

K, H, ammonium

83

The PCT nuclei are located ____ in the cell while the DCT nuclei are located ____

basally
apically

84

The juxtaglomerular apparatus is located at the ____ pole of the renal corpuscle

vascular

85

The JG apparatus contains juxtagolmerular cells which are mainly in the wall of the ____ arteriole. They are modified ____ ____ cells that sense blood pressure decreases and synthesize ___ that is stored in secretory granules

afferent
smooth muscle
renin

86

___ ____ cells are located in the JG apparatus and are tall, narrow, epithelial distal tube cells with elongated and closely packed ____.

macula densa
nuceli

87

Macula densa cells are sensitive to changes in ____ concentration, telling the JG cells to secrete renin via ____ _____

NaCl
gap junctions

88

JG cells are also innervated by ____ nerve fibers. ____ and ____ secreted by these fibers stimulates renin secretion

sympathetic (adrenergic)
dopamine, Norepinephrine

89

Extraglomerular mesangial cells (also called pole cushion or ___ cells) are found between the afferent and efferent glomerular arterioles. They are connected to each other and JG cells by ____ ____

lacis
gap junctions

90

The function of the ____ ____ is to maintain blood pressure by stimulating JG cells to release ____

juxtoglomerular apparatus
renin

91

Renin converts ____ in the plasma to _____ 1, which is converted to _____ 2 in lung capillaries, which stimulates release of _____ in the adrenal cortex

angiotensinogen
angiotensin
angiotensin
aldosterone

92

Aldosterone stimulates _____ _____ ____ epithelial cells to reabsorb Na and Water, which ____ blood volume and pressure

distal convoluted tubules
raises

93

____ arterioles of the glomerulus are usually thicker than ____ arterioles.

afferent
efferent

94

A decrease in vascular volume causes a _____ in glomerular filtration rate and the amount of filtered _____. The reduction in NaCl is sensed by ____ ____ cells and triggers renin secretion

decrease
NaCl
macula densa

95

Collecting ducts (tubules) have cell membranes rich in _____

aquaporins

96

Collecting tubules have segments in the ____ and ____-

cortex
medulla

97

cortical collecting tubules are located mainly in ____ ____ and are lined by 2 types of ____ cells

medullary rays
cuboidal

98

Principal (____) cells have a round, centrally located nucelus and a single central ____ that acts as a mechanosensor. There are many basal plasma membrane _____

light
cilium
infoldings

99

principal/light cells remove ____ ions from the filtrate and secrete ______ into it. They respond to ____ from adrenals

Na, K
aldosterone

100

Intercalated (____) cells are ____ numerous than principal cells. They have many cytoplasmic ____ and microplicae on their surface. They remove ___ from the filtrate and secrete ___ into it.

dark
less
vesicles
K, H+

101

Medullary collecting tubules in the outer medulla have ___ and ____ cells while in the inner medulla, they only have ____ cells

principal, intercalated
principal

102

____ collecting tubules are large collecting tubules lined by a simple cuboidal/columnar epithelium with a single central primary ____ that may function as a sensory

papillary
cillium

103

Papillary collecting tubules empty at the ___ ____ at the apex of each renal pyramid.

area cribosa

104

The ____ ___ ____ is where 2/3 of the filtrate is reabsorbed. It reabsorbs glucose, amino acids, and small proteins, along with most of the NaCl and water. There is/is not osmolarity change

proximal convoluted tubule
is no

105

In the descending thick limb of Henle, ____ is reabsorbed while ____ is not

H2O
NaCl

106

The descending thin limb is permeable to ____. Ultrafiltrate equilibrates with the ____ ____

H2O
renal interstitium

107

The ascending thin limb is ____ to H2O. ___ is reabsorbed, and ___ moves into the tubule

impermeable
NaCl
Urea

108

The distal convoluted tubule and part of the collecting tubule ____ NaCl

reabsorb

109

In the collecting duct, ____ moves from interstitium to the duct

Urea

110

_____ is inflammation of the glomeruli. There may be proliferation of podocytes and ____ and ____ infiltration

glomerulonephritis
mesangial cells
leukocyte

111

Glomerulonephritis may occur after a ____ infection elsewhere in the body due to deposition of immune complexes in the basement membrane.

strepoccoal

112

In glomerulonephritis, there is often blood in the urine (_____), protein in the urine (_____), or both. There may also be decreased urine output (____). The chronic form of this disease destroys glomeruli, leading to ___ ____ and death

hematuria
proteinuria
oliguria
renal failure

113

____ ____ ____ is destruction of epithelial cells lining a specific area of the nephron. As cells die, they slough off, forming ____ that occlude the lumen

acute tubular necrosis
casts

114

Acute tubular necrosis can be either ____ (Shock, crush injuries, bacterial infection) or ____ (ingestion of poisins, heavy metals)

ischemic
toxic

115

NSAIDs can cause ____ ____ ____ if you are dehydrated

acute tubular necrosis

116

____ ____ ____ is due to reduced blood flow to the kidneys causing decreased glomeruluar filtration and tubular ischemia

chornic renal failure

117

In chronic renal failure, the ___ ___ balance cannot be maintained and inability to eliminate metabolic wastes may occur

acid-base

118

In diabetes ____, there is destruction of the paraventricular and supraoptic nuceli in the hypothalamus which synthesizes ADH

insipidus

119

In diabetes insipidus, there is a decreased ability of the kidney to ____ urine in the collecting tubules due to reduced levels of ____

concentrate
ADH

120

____ ____ is marked by dehydration, excessive thirst, and excretion of large amounts of dilute urine

diabetes insipidus

121

Kidney stones are usually made of ___ _____ and are due to elevated levels of Ca, oxalic acid, and uric acid

calcium oxalate

122

____ stones are due to magneisum, ammonium, phosphate, and calcium carbonate and are usually a result of UTI's

struvite

123

The ureter is made of ____ epithelium

transitional

124

The upper 2/3 has a ___ layered muscularis consisting of an inner longitudinal layer and outer ____ ____ muscle layer

2
circular smooth

125

The distal 1/3 of of the ureter has a ___ layered muscularis

3
(Extra outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle)

126

The proximal ureter has more ___ and less ____ than the distal ureter

connective tissue, smooth muscle

127

The urinary bladder consists of _____ epithelium with a superficial layer of "____" cells

transitional
umbrella

128

The urinary bladder has a lamina propria of ____ connective tissue and a _-layered muscularis

fibroelastic
3

129

In a relaxed bladder, the epithelium is rounded with a ____ contour. Umbrella cells contain unique ____ in their luminal plasma membrane and flattened ____ _____ in their cytoplasm that acts as a reserve surface membrane

scallopped
plaques
elliptical vesicles

130

In the distended bladder, the superficial cell layer appears ____ and the number of cell layers is ___, due to insertion of ____ ____ into the luminal plasma membrane of the surface cells

squamous
reduced
ellipitcal vesicles

131

The urethra consists of a __-layered muscularis. What are the layers?

2
inner longitudinal
outer circular smooth muscle

132

In the membranous urethra of males there is a ____ ____ muscle sphincter that permits ____ closure

external skeletal
voluntary

133

The prostatic portion of the urethra is made of ____ epithelium while the membranous and penile portions are composed _____ epithelium

transitional
pseudostratified or stratified columnar epithelium

134

The penile urethra recieves ducts of ____ glands and also has mucous secreting glands of _____ in the lamina propria

bulbourethral
littre

135

The end of the penile/cavernous portion of the urethra is lined by ____ ____ epithelium

stratified squamous

136

What are the changes of epithelium in the female urethra? (3 of them)

transitional epithelium-->
pseudostratified columnar-->
stratified squamous non keratinized