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Flashcards in Lymphoid System 1 Deck (57):
1

The 2 central lymphoid organs are the ____ and ____ _____

thymus, bone marrow

2

_____ is the source of stem cells. B cells derived from stem cells reside in _____ lymphoid organs

bone marrow
non-thymic

3

stem cells from bone marrow mature to __ lymphocytes in the ____

T-
thymus

4

Interaction with T-helper and macrophages results in clonal expansion of B cells to produce antibody producing ____ ____ and ___ ____ cells

plasma cells
memory B

5

Memory b cells are important in the ____ antibody response. They recognize free antigen peptides not bound to the _____ complex

secondary
MHC

6

_ cells respond to cell-bound antigens

T

7

T helper cells are also called ___. They interact with B-cell/macrophages to stimulate response to a ____ ____

CD4+
foreign antigen

8

T-helper cells recognize ____ on antigen presenting cells

MHC2

9

The ____ subclass of T-helper cells are important in response to viral and bacterial infection, while the ___ subclass is important in response to parasitic infection

TH1
TH2

10

T-cytolytic (cytotox) cells are also called ___. They recognize ___ on antigen presenting cells

CD8+
MHC1

11

A bone marrow stem cell gives rise to a large granular lymphocyte called a ____ cell that lacks T-cell receptors and CD4 and 8 co-receptors. This cell may in turn differentiate into a ____ ____ cell

null
natural killer

12

Natural killer cells do/do not require interaction with an antigen presenting cell to be activated. They are part of the _____ immune system and recognize _____ infected cells and ____ cells

do not
innate
virus, cancer

13

Natural killer cells may also participate in _____ immune response by participating in antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity. They will recognize the ____ on a pathogen infected cell and ____ the cell

adaptive
antibody
lyse

14

T-helper cells have a ___ co-receptor and recognize the ___ complex. Cytolytic T-cells have a ___ co-receptor and recognize the ____ complex

CD4, MHC2
CD8, MHC1

15

_____ cells internalize antigens by phagocytosis and break them down into peptide fragments which are bound to ____ molecoules

surveillance
Molecular histocompatability complex

16

There are 2 types of MHC. All nucleated cells have type ____. MHC __ are present on antigen presenting cells, endothelial cells, and thymic epithelial reticular cells

1
2

17

____ cells in the CNS, fibroblasts, and ___ cells may function in antigen presentation

glial
mast

18

What are the peripheral lymphoid organs? Spleen, 5 more

lymph nodes, lymph nodules, tonsils, appendix, and peyer's patches

19

Where do you find peyer's patches?

Illeum

20

Lymphoid nodules are not ____. They may be in solitary or aggreagated groups, such as in ___ ____

encapsulated
peyer's patches

21

Lymph nodes are dense lymphatic tissue surrounded by a _____ ____ ____ tissue capsule

dense irregular connective

22

Connective tissue from the capsule extends throughout the lymph node by branching ____ that converge on the node ____

trabeculae
hilus

23

The ____ is the region where lymph exits the node via _____ lymphatic vessels. Arteries and veins also enter and leave the node here

hilus
efferent

24

The capsule, trabeculae, and the network of reticular fibers and cells constitute the ____ of the node

stroma

25

_____ are separated from the capsule, trabeculae, and dense lymphoid tissue by ____ cells, as well as reticular cells and macrophages attached to the ____ fiber network. These are ____ macrophages

sinuses
squamous
reticular
fixed

26

Large ____ ____ cells are antigen presenting cells present in the cortex of the lymph node

follicular dendritic (FDC)

27

_____ ____ are in the outer cortex of the node and may be primary or secondary.

lymphoid nodules

28

Primary lymphoid nodules are ____ and contain no ____ ____, Secondary lymphoid nodules have ____

unstimulated, germinal centers
germinal centers

29

____ ____ contain larger lymphoblasts and a marginal zone of smaller lymphocytes and some macrophages around the periphery

germinal centers

30

Germinal centers occur in lymphoid nodules when ____ cells are activated by ____ cells.

B
helper T

31

____ undergo clonal expansion towards ultimately becoming an antibody secreting plasma cell

lymphoblasts

32

A selection process occurs with maturing B-lymphoblasts. When cells mature, they contact _____, which present antigens to cells. Those with low affinity antibodies undergo _____ and are _____ by macrophages

FDC's
apoptosis
phagocytosed

33

Cells with high affinity antibodies will move to ____ ____ and become _____ cells

medullary cords
plasma

34

Cells that are non-specific for antigens presented by ____ accumulate in the ____ ____ of the lymphoid follicle

FDCs
mantle zone

35

The nodules and medullary cords primarily contain ____ cells while the paranodular and inner cortex region are primarily ___ cells

B
T

36

medullary cords have high numbers of ___ cells. Segregation within nodules is based upon various ___ signals

plasma
cytokine

37

Multiple affrerent lymphatic vessels empty into a _____ ____ located between the capsule and outer cortex

subcapsular sinus

38

From the subcaspular sinus, lymph flows into _____ ____ that run along trabeculae

intermediate (Trabecular) sinuses

39

From intermediate sinuses, lymph flows into ____ ____, located around medullary cords

medullary sinuses

40

____ ____ ____ are lined by tall cuboidal endothelial cells in the paracorticol zone and are an important route for ___ migration into the lymph node

high endothelial cells
lymph

41

The three tonsils are ____ ____ and ____

lingual, pharyngeal, palatine

42

In ____ tonsils, there is diffuse infiltration of lymphocytes or multiple small nodules below the epithelium of the posterior third of the tongue

lingual

43

____ tonsils are also called adenoids. They are located on the posterior wall of the _____ and are covered with _____ _____ _____ epithelium

pharyngeal
nasopharynx
pseudostratified ciliated columnar

44

_____ tonsils are located between the glossopalatine and pharyngopalatine arches. The base and sides of this tonsil are enclosed in a ______ ____ tissue capsule that is covered with ____ ____ epithelium

palatine
dense connective
stratified squamos

45

The palatine tonsils have epithelium with many invaginations down into the parenchyma called _____

crypts

46

White spots on tonsils are due to ____ ___)__

dead lymphocytes

47

___ ____ are the primary mediator of graft rejection and graft versus host disease

T-cells

48

What is Graft versus host disease?

T cells in a graft see the host tissue as foreign and attack it

49

____ disease is a problem in bone marrow transpants

GvH (graft vs host)

50

Graft rejection/acceptance is mediated by ____ ____ on cells

MHC antigens

51

____ ____ are aggregated nodules of lymphoid tissue located primarily in the lower illeum.

Peyer's patches

52

The folicular epithelium of peyer's patches contains ___ cells, which are antigen ____ cells

M, presenting

53

The lamina propria of the ____ is extremely rich in diffusely scattered lymphoid elements and solitary nodules

appendix

54

Excessive response to infectious reagents can lead to inflammation and swelling of the lymph node, which is called:

lymphadenitis

55

lymph nodes are a common site for ____ of cancer cells

metastasis

56

Because of the frequent and rapid ____ and ____ of lymphoid cells, they are the sources of various types of lymphoma

division, differentiation

57

In palatine tonsils, ____ _____ of epithelium is common

lymphocytic infiltration