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Histology Test 3 Brendan > Liver and Pancreas > Flashcards

Flashcards in Liver and Pancreas Deck (76):
1

What are the major functions of the liver? (6 listed)

gluconeogensis
detoxification
storage
produce plasma proteins (endocrine secretions)
production of bile (exocrine secretion)
transfer of IgA into bile canaliculi

2

Liver receives blood from the _____ ____ (20-30%) and the ___ ___ (70-80%).

hepatic artery
portal vein

3

blood leaves the liver via a ___ ____

central vein

4

a fibroconnective tissue capsule subdivides the liver into ___ and ____

lobes, lobules

5

the liver is composed of parenchymal cells called ____ that are arranged in anastamosing and branching plates. They are ____-shaped cells

hepatocytes
hexagon

6

Hepatocytes have abundant ____, ____ ____, ____ and mitochondria, glycogen deposits, and lipid droplets

rER, smooth ER, peroxisomes, lysosomes

7

The classic liver lobule is a ____ arrangement of hepatocyte plates aroiund a central ____

hexagonal
vein

8

Liver cells can/cannot divide if part of the liver is removed

can

9

around the periphery of each liver louble are several _____ ____ called portal triads

portal canals

10

a portal canal consistsof branches of the ___ ____, ___ ____, and a ____ ____

portal vein
hepatic artery
bile duct

lymph vessels may also be present

11

blood from vessels in the portal areas flow into _____ _____ and empties into the central vein

liver sinusoids

12

Liver ___ are discontinuous endothelial lined spaces located in-between plates of hepatocytes.

sinusoids

13

liver sinusoid endothelial cells have large _____

fenestrations

14

Sinusoids contain many ____ cells that are phagocytic cells in the monocyte lineage

kupffer

15

between the hepatocytes and sinusoid epithelium is a subendothelial space called the space of ____

disse

16

The classic liver lobule defines flow of ___ while the portal lobule defines flow of ____

blood
bile

17

The portal lobule is centered on a portal area is defined by 3 adjacent ___ ____. The triangular area defines the flow of ____

central veins
bile (into the bile duct)

18

The hepatic accinus of Rappaport (liver acinus) defines the ____ _____

metabolic gradient

19

the liver acinus is centered on the portal area but is defined by 2 adjacent ____ ____

central veins

20

Zone 1 of the liver acinus consists of _____ functions (Cholesterol synthesis, gluconeogenis). it is a high ___ area

oxidative
O2

21

Zone 2 of the liver acinus is an ____ region

intermediate

22

Zone 3 of the liver acinus is a low ____ area. Hepatocytes in this area have a role in _____ and are succeptible to hypoxia

O2
detoxification

23

The space of disse functions to exchange material between the ____ and ____

bloodstream
hepatocytes

24

The space of disse has reticular fibers and may also have fat storing cells called ____ ____ cells(Cells of Ito). These are important for Vitamin _ storage and metabolism

hepatic stellate
A

25

Hepatic stellate cells produce ____ during disease such as cirhossis in response to cytokines from the ____ cells

collagen
kupffer

26

The hepatocyte surface in the space of disse region has many _____

microvilli

27

The space of disse is located underneath ____ ____ and is where exchange of blood takes place

fenestrated epithelium

28

Bile flows in the ____ direction of blood

opposite

29

bile is an ____ secretion from the hepatocytes and is secreted into bile _____ which are intracellular spaces between the hepatocytes

exocrine
canaliculi

30

bile flows to canals of hering that are small ____ ____ at the edge of liver lobules and then into bile ducts located in the ____ ___

bile ductules
portal areas

31

Bile ducts merge into ____ ____

hepatic ducts

32

The common hepatic duct leads to the ____ ___ on the gallbladder neck

cystic duct

33

Bile canuliculi contain a lot of ____

ATPase

34

The main bile function is excretion of _____, phospholipids, bile salts, conjugated ____ and electrolytes

cholesterol, bilirubin

35

Bile acids reabsorb in the ____. Veinous blood from here goes to the portal vein and then to ____, where hepatocytes extract bile acids from the blood.

illeum
sinusoids

36

Bile acids are transported across ____ from sinusoids and are resecreted into ____

hepatocytes
canaliculi

37

Most IgA is made by plasma cells in the intestinal mucosa and eventually goes to the ____

liver

38

Hepatocytes complex ___ with secretory component and release it into the bile

IgA

39

Bile components are transported into canaliculis via an ____ dependent pump in the plasma membrane

ATP

40

Bile canaliculi contain ____ ____ transporters that just pump cancer drugs out with ATPase

multi-drug

41

Splenic macrophages remove senescent RBC's. Heme is converted to ____ and released into blood where it is conjugated with _____.

bilirubin
albumin

42

Lipid soluble bilirubin enters a hepatocyte, is complexed to ligandin and is the released as ____ bilirubin into the cytosol. Glucouronic acid is added to this to form ____ bilirubin, which is secreted into bile

free
conjugated

43

Hepatitis is ____ of the liver. A=_____, via a fecal or oral route. B=_____ via blood and blood products. C=transfusion related and can cause ______ carcinoma

inflammation
infectous
serum related
hepatocellular

44

_____ is degeneration and fibrosis of damaged hepatocytes. Long-term ETOH consumption is one cause. It is often accompanied by ___ deposits.

cirrhosis
lipid

45

____ is due to excessive bilirubin in blood. Bile pigment will be seen in the skin and sclera of the eye. It is due to liver dysfunction, obstructed ____ passages, or excessive ____ destruction

jaundice
bile
RBC

46

Congestive heart failure causes increased central venous pressure and can cause the liver to _____ with _____.

engorge, blood

47

____ ____ is due to obstructed blood flow and is often associated with cirrhosis. It leads to ascites

Portal hypertension

48

Free ____ is toxic to the brain. Hemolytic diseases such as erythroblastosis _____ can result in ____

bilirubin
fetalis, hyperbilirubinemia

49

Alcohol is metabolized via _____ ____. This proudces excess H+ and _____ which is toxic to the liver due to production of reactive oxygen species

alcohol dehydrogenase
acetaldehyde

50

Chronic liver disease causes proinflammatory ____ to be released from kupffer cells. Thiese induce the hepatic stellate cell to produce ____ which causes _____

cytokines
collagen
fibrosis

51

During liver cirhossis, stellate cells transform to _____ and produce collagen

myofibroblasts

52

The gallbladder stores bile and releases it to duodenum in response to _____

cholecystokinin

53

The gall bladder mucosa is lined by ____ ____ epithelium with numerous microvilli on the apical surface.

simple columnar

54

the key feature of the gallbladder is the _____ of the epithelium. These are outpockings that form what appear to be epithelial lined ____ in the lamina propria (aka rokitansky-aschoff sinuses)

diverticula
cysts

55

The gall bladder is attached to the liver via ____, but is covered by ____ for most of the organ

adventitia
serosa

56

The gallbladder does not contain any _____

glands

57

Gallstones are usually of _____ crystals and can be found in the gallbladder and bile duct

cholesterol

58

The ____ is both an exocrine and endocrine organ

pancreas

59

The ____ portion of the pancrease is the islets of langerhans, made of several different cell types

endocrine

60

Alpha cells produce ______

glucagon (Elevates blood glucose)

61

____ cells produce somatostatin that inhibits hormonal release by neighboring secretory cells

delta

62

____ cells produce ghrelin which stimulates appetite

epsilon

63

Beta cells produce _____

insulin (decreases blood glucose)

64

Pancreas cell types can be distinguished by the ______ stain

mallory-azan

65

PP (F) cells produce _____ ____ that inhibits release of exocrine pancreatic secretions

pancreatic polypeptide

66

Endocrine cells are surrounded by a reticular fiber network and are located among the _____ of exocrine pancrease

acini

67

The exocrine pancreas secretes ____, ____, ribonuclease, and deoxyribonuclease in response to _____ from intestinal enteroendocrine cells

lipase, amylase
cholecystokonin

68

The exocrine pancreas secretes trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, and elastase enzymes in _____ form, which must be activated in the intestine

proenzyme

69

intercalated duct cells secrete large quantities of enzyme poor ____ fluid (bicarbonate) in response to _____ produced by intestinal enteroendocrine cells

alkaline
secretin

70

What is the pathway of fluid drainage to the main pancreatic duct? acinar cells-->_______ (centroacinar cells)-->_________ (cuboidal epithelium)-->__________ (hella connective tissue)-->main pancreatic duct

intercalated ducts
intralobular duts
interlobular ducts

71

The alkaline fluid produced by intercalated ducts keeps pancreatic enzymes _____

inactive

72

Type _ diabetes is insulin dependent and is usually sudden onset before 20 years old. Low levels of plasma insulin are seen, characterized by ____ (Excessive thirst), ____ (excessive urination), and ____ (insatiable hunger)

1
polydispia
polyuria
polyphagia

73

Type __ diabetes is non-insulin dependent and is usually in overweight individuals over age 40. Insulin levels may be normal, or there may be impaired insulin release or decreased ____ _____

2
insulin receptors

74

____ insulin resistance is a significant component to insulin resistance diabetes

muscle

75

____ insulin resistance can be due to faulty signalling through docking molecules, which are proteins that connect insulin receptor activity to downstream kinase cascades

hepatic

76

in acute ____ pancreatitis, ____ may be activated, leading to digestion of pancreatic tissue

necrotizing
proenzymes