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Histology Test 3 Brendan > Digestive System-upper > Flashcards

Flashcards in Digestive System-upper Deck (60):
1

The digestive system is a layered hollow tube, generally consisting of mucosa, submucosa, ______ ____ and serosa, when continuous with mesentery, and ____ where fixed to the wall of the cavity

muscularis externa
adventitia

2

The esophagus is lined by a stratified squamous ________ epithelium

nonkeratinized

3

The mucosa of the esophagus consists of mucous secreting esophageal ____ glands and esophageal glands _____ in the submucosa. ____ glands are more abundant.

cardiac
proper
proper.

The esophageal glands proper are primarily mucous secreting but also have some serous cells.

4

The muscularis mucosa of the mucosal layer consists of a single ____ layer of ____ muscle

longitudal
smooth

5

In the upper third of the muscalris externa, ____ muscle occurs. In the middle third, both smooth and striated muscle occur. In the distal 3rd, there is _____ muscle

skeletal
smooth

6

The two physiological sphincters of the esophagus are the upper ______ and the _____ located in the lower portion of the esophagus. Both sphincters are found in this layer: __________

pharyngeoesophageal
gastroesophageal
muscularis externa

7

The upper sphincter initiates ___ and the lower esophageal sphincter prevents _____ ___ from stomach to esophagus

swallowing
acid reflux

8

Persistant acid reflux can lead to _____

GERD
(gastroesphageal reflux disease)

9

Throughout the GI tract, we have the _____ plexus found between the muscle layers of the muscularis externa

myenteric (Auerbach's)

10

At the gastro-esophageal junction, the epithelium switches from _____ to _____ abruptly

stratified squamous
columnar

11

_____ Esophagus is caused by an abnormal growth of simple columnar cells into the lower esophagus. This causes them to be more easily injured by stomach acid. It is a risk factor for _____ of the esophagus, and is 3x more common in this gender _____

Barrett's
adenocarcinoma
males

12

If the esophageal hiatus in the diaphragm does not close entirely during development, a ____ _____ results. This causes reflux esophagitis and ulceration often, leading to difficulty swallowing and a feeling of a lump in the throat.

hiatal hernia

13

Longitudinal folds of the mucosa and submucosa called rugae are found in the _____ and disappear when distended.

stomach

14

The stomach has numerous gastric pits that are deepest in the _____ and shallowest in the ____

pylorus
cardia

15

Gastric pits produce ____ rich in ____

mucous
bicarbonate

16

The _____ part of the stomach is the primary contributor to gastric juice. It has simple tubular glands, shallow gland pits with abundant ____ and ____ cells

fundus
parietal
chief

17

The ____ part of the stomach consists of tubular glands with a coiled end. These glands are _____ _____

cardia
mucous secreting

18

The ____ part of the stomach consists of deep gastric pits with _____ glands. This part of the stomach also contains ____ secreting G-cells

pyloric
branched
gastrin

19

The gastric mucosa consists of _____ epithelium that are mucous producing. The rest of the mucosa includes the lamina propria, ___ glands, and muscularis mucosae

simple columnar
gastric

20

The muscularis mucosae of the stomach consists of a poorly defined inner ____ layer and an outer ____ layer of smooth muscle

circular
longitudinal

21

The gastric submucosa consists of dense irregular _____ CT with fibroblasts, mast cells, and lymphoid elements. It also contains _____ plexus

collagenous
meissner's

22

The gastric muscularis externae consits of 3 layers: an incomplete inner ____; a thick middle _____; and an outer ____ layer. The _____ layer forms the pyloric sphincter

oblique
circular
longitudinal
middle

23

Chyme characteristics such as viscosity, pH, lipid content, osmolality, and caloric density influence the stomach _____ _____

emptying rate

24

Gastric _____ covers the external surface of the stomach

serosa

25

The epithelium of the ____ and ____ regions of the stomach consits of mucous secreting surface lining cells

body, fundus

26

Gastric glands are _____ tubuluar and consist of an _____ that connects the gland to the base of a gastric pit, a neck, and a ____

simple
isthmus
base

27

Gastric glands consist of 5 types of cells:

parietal
chief
mucous neck
enteroendocrine
regenerative

28

regenerative cells are located primarily in the ____ and ____ of gastric glands and replace all other cells in the gland, pit, and luminal surface

neck, isthmus

29

The surface lining cells of the stomach consist of simple columnar cells that contain apically located ____ granules. These cells secrete a cloudy, viscous mucous with a high _____ content that protects from acid

mucinogen
bicarbonate

30

Mucous neck cells are found in the neck of _____ _____

gastric glands

31

Mucous neck cells have short _____, apical mucous granules, and a prominent _____

microvilli
golgi

32

Mucous neck cells secrete a solubule mucous upon _____ stimulation that is not as thick as mucous produced by _____ ____ cells

vagal
surface lining

33

____ cells are pyramidal shaped cells found in the upper half of gastric glands that stain red-pink with H and E

parietal

34

parietal cells secrete _____ and gastric ____ ____ (needed for Vit B12 absorption)

HCl
intrinsic factor

35

Parietal cells are an intracellular _______ system, contain many mitochondria, and have secretary intracellular canaliculi that are deep invaginations of the apical plasma membrane lined by ____

tubulovesicular
microvilli

36

When stimulated to secrete HCl, the number of microvilli ____ and the complexity of the tubulovesicular system _____ in parietal cells

increase
decreases

37

Parietal cell secretion: Histamine binds to histamine __ receptor and increases the effects of ____ and ____ on parietal cell secretion. Histamine is produced by ______-like cells in the lamina propria around gastric glands

H2
Acetycholine
gastrin
enterochromaffin

38

Anti-acid drugs like cimetidine _____ histamine-dependent acid secretion. Others such as omeprazole bind to H+, K+-dependent _____ and _____ acid secretion

inhibit
ATPase
inactivate

39

Carbon dioxide produced by the blood and parietal cells combines with hydroxyl ions to form _____ ___. This dissociates to bicarbonate ions and hydrogen ions. Bicarbonate diffuses out of the cell and is picked up by _____. This affects blood and mucus ____ on the surface

carbonic acid
capillaries
pH

40

____ cells are pyramidal shaped cells in the lower half of fundic glands. These stain blue with H and E

CHIEF

41

Chief cells secrete _____, ____, and ___ precursors

pepsinogen
rennin
lipase

42

Chief cells have abundant basally located rER, a supranuclear _____ and apical secretory granules that release _____

GOLGI
zymogens

43

Enteroendocrine cells belong to a population of ______ _____ cells (DINES). They are also called APUD cells or ______ precursor _____ ___ cells, although not all enteroendocrine cells take up these _____ precursor

Diffuse neuroendocrine
amine precursor and decarboxylation
amine

44

There are more than a dozen different cell types of _____ cells that contain small hormone-containing granules, although a given cell only secretes one hormone.

enteroendocrine

45

Gastric juices are very _____.This facilitates activation of ____ to ____ to catalyze the partial hydrolysis of proteins

acidic
pepsinogen, pepsin

46

Gastric secretion is affected by neural (____ nerve) and ____ activity

vagal
hormonal

47

_____ is released by cells in the duodenum when ph is less than 4.5. This stimulates pancreatic ___ and fluid secretion, and stimulate chief cells to ____

secretin
bicarbonate
secrete pepsinogen

48

_____ is produced by G-cells in the pylorus and duodenal mucosa. It stimulates _____ secretion

gastrin
HCl

49

Somatostatin is produced by D cells of the pylorus and _____. It inhibits _____ release and directly inhibits _____ secretion

duodenum
gastrin
HCl

50

_____ ____ peptide (urogastrone) is produced by cells in the duodenum and jejunum. It directly inhibits HCl secretion and stimulates ____ release

gastric inhibitory
insulin

51

____ is produced in the duodenum and jejunum. It stimulates gall bladder contraction when fat is in the ____ intestine

Cholescystekinin (CCK)
small

52

___ is released cyclically during fasting from cells in the upper GI tract. It stimulates _____

motilin
motility

53

_____ is gastric mucosal inflammation common in middle aged and older individuals

gastritis

54

______ syndrome occurs when patients with gastrin secreting tumors have hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the fundus.____ acid secretion also occurs.

Zollinger-ellison
high

55

Gastric and Peptic ulcers are areas of gastric and duodenal mucosa being destroyed by gastric secretions, They commonly occur in ____ and ____ regions and the first part of the duodenum

cardiac, pyloric

56

Gastric/Peptic ulcers are caused by excessive ___ secretions, ____ irritation, reduced vascular supply, reduced ____ secretion, infection, and ______ such as aspirin

HCl
nervous
mucous
NSAIDS

57

The three phases of H. Pylori Infection are:

active
stationary
colonization

58

In the active phase of H. pylori infection, gastric pH is ____ by producing ammonia via _____

increased
urease

59

In the ____ phase of H. Pylori infection, bacteria attach to ____ containing receptors on the surface of mucous cells in the pylorus, releasing proteases that kill surface cells

stationary
fructose

60

In the ____ phase of H. pylori infection, bacrteria detach and replicate in mucus blanket.

colonization