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Histology Test 3 Brendan > Male Reproductive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Male Reproductive System Deck (92):
1

The venous pampinoform plexus in the testes acts as a heat exchanger between cool ___ blood and warmer ____ blood

venous
arterial

2

The ____ ____ is a serous sac derived from peritoneum that partially covers anterior and lateral surfaces

tunica vaginalis

3

the ____ ____ is a thick fibrous connective tissue capsule

tunica albuginea

4

The ____ ____ lies deeper to the Tunica albuginea and is a highly vascularized layer of loose connective tissue

tunica vasculosa

5

the ____ _____ is a posterior thickening of the Tunica albugenia that forms incomplete cnnective tissue septa, which divide the organ into testicular _____

mediastinum testes
lobules

6

Testicular lobules have 1-4 ____ ____ each, embedded in a highly vascular loose CT containing lymphatic vessels, nerves, and ____ cells that synthesize testosterone

seminiferous tubules
leydig

7

Seminiferous tubules are convoluted hollow tubules in testicular lobules that eventually narrow into short, straight segments called ____ ____ that connect with the ____ ____

tubuli recti
rete testes

8

Seminiferous tubules have thin tubule wall of tunica propria, lined by _____ epithelium that consists of 4 to 8 cell layers and contains _____ cells and ____ cells

germinal
sertoli, spermatogenic

9

Germ cells and sertoli cells develop from ____ cells

spermatogenic

10

Leydig cells are round cells found in ____ areas between seminiferous tubules with a large central nucleus. They stain ______ due to abundant _____ ER. There are many lipid droplets containing cholesterol esters that are ____ precursors

interstitial
acidophilic
smooth
testosterone

11

Leydig cells may contain rod-shaped crystals called ____ crystals that are found in leydig cell tumors

reinke

12

Leydig cells are ____ cells that produce and secrete ____. Secretion is stimulated by ____ hormone produced in the pituitary gland

endocrine
testosterone
lutenizing

13

Sertoli cells are tall columnar cells with a oval ____ and a prominent _____. They are replicating/non-replicating

nucleus
nucleolus
non-replicating

14

Sertoli cells have receptors for ____ hormone on their plasma membrane

Follical-stimulating

15

Sertoli cells form ____ ____ with adjacent sertoli cells near their base. This divides the seminiferous tubule lumen into a _____ and _____ compartment

zonulae occludens (tight junction)
basal, adluminal

16

The tight junctions of sertoli cells are responsible for the _____ barrier, protecting developing sperm cells from ____ reactions

blood-testes
autoimmune

17

Sertoli cells ____ excess cytoplasm discarded by maturing spermatids

phagocytose

18

Sertoli cells secrete ___-rich fluid that transports spermatozoa through the seminiferous tubules to the ____ ____

fructose
genital ducts

19

Sertoli cells synthesize and secrete ____ ____ protein under the influence of FSH. This concentrates ____ in the seminiferous tubule lumen

androgen binding protein (ABP)
testosterone

20

Sertoloi cells synthesize and secrete ____, which is a hormone that inhibits synthesis and release of FSH by the _____ _____

inhibin
anterior pituitary

21

Sertoli cells synthesize and secrete _____ _____, which accepts Fe from serum transferrin and transfers to maturing ____

testicular transferrin
gametes

22

Spermatogenesis occurs in wave like maturation sequences in ______ epithelium

seminiferous

23

Spermatogenesis is characterized by daughter cells remaining connected to each other by ____ ____. This produces a ____, which may be responsible for the synchronus development of germ cells

intracellular bridges
syncytium

24

The three phases of spermatogenesis are :

Spermatogonial
spermatocyte (meiosis)
spermatid (spermiogenesis)

25

_____ are diploid germ cells next to seminiferous epithelium basal lamina, in the _____ compartment

spermatagonia
basal

26

___ type A spermatagonia have a pale staining nucleus and are mitotically ____. These give rise to more type a cells or type ___ spermatagonia

Pale
active
B

27

____ type A spermatagonia are mitotically _____. They have a dark oval nuclei that is very ____. They can produce the other type of A cells. They are _____ resistant

Dark
inactive
basophilic
radiation/chemo

28

Type ___ spermatagonia undergo mitosis and give rise to primary spermatocytes. Their chromatin is in large clumps along the nuclear ____, and they have a central nucelolus.

B
envelope

29

As soon as primary spermatids are formed, they duplicate chromsomes such that they have __ DNA. They then migrate to the ____ compartment

2 x 2n
adluminal

30

Primary spermatocytes form zonula occludens with ___ cells while migrating to maintain the blood-testes barrier. During meiosis 1, one chromosome, each with __ chromatids goes to each secondary spermatocyte

sertoli
2 x 1n

31

The first meiotic division is ____ and produces secondary spermatocytes with 2n DNA. The second division occurs with each secondary spermatocyte dividing to form 2 _____ (___ genetic material replication)

reductional
spermatids (no

32

Each primary spermatocyte results in ____ spermatids

4

33

Spermatogenesis is _ cellular division(s) and _ DNA replication(s)

2
1

34

Spermatids are small _____ cells containing only __ DNA

haploid
1n

35

Spermatids are located near the ____ of the seminferous tubule

lumen

36

What is the pathway of spermatogenesis?

Dark Type A spermatagonia-->Pale type A spermatagonia-->Type B spermatagonia-->primary spermatocyte-->secondary spermatocyte-->spermatid-->spermatazoa

37

____ of meiosis 1 is how we get our genetic diversity.

Prophase 1

38

In ____ of prophase 1, chromosomes condense

leptotene

39

In ___ of prophase 1, homologous chromosomes pair up and form a synaptonemal complex, that allows for physical association of chromosomes for ____ _____

zygotene
crossing over

40

In ____ of prophase 1, chromatids become visible and ____ ____ begins

pachytene
crossing over

41

In _____ of prophase 1, there is further chromosome condensation. Chiasmata between chromatids becomes evident

diplotene

42

In ____ of prophase 1, the nucleolus disappears and the nuclear envelop disintegrates

diakinesis

43

Anaphase and telophase of meisosis 1 is similar to mitosis except chromosomes do not split and paired ____ stay together

chromatids

44

there is no ____ ____ in prophase 2 of meiosis 2

DNA synthesis

45

Cytodifferentiation is the process be whereby _____ become ____ and are released into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule

spermatids
spermatozoa

46

What are the 4 phases of spermiogeneis

Golgi, Cap, Acrosomal, Maturation

47

The ____ _____ is a helmet of enzymes and is important for fertilization of the egg

acrosomal cap

48

As the spermatid elongates, sperm chromatin undergoes a complex transition where ____ are replaced by ____, providing a higher order of chromatin packaging

histones
protamines

49

The general structure of a spermatoza is a acrosomal cap containing ____ enzymes, a flattened head containing _____ and a large flagellur ____

hydrolytic
chromosomes
tail

50

Tubuli recti are short, straight tubules that are initially lined only by ____ cells but change to a ____ ____ epithelium with microvilli and a single cilium

sertoli
simple cuboidal

51

The ___ ____ make a plexus of anastamosing channels lined by a simple cuboidal epithelium

rete testes

52

____ ductules are collection of 10-20 tubules leading from the rete testes to the ductus epididymis. They ave a thin circular layer of ____ ____ underneath the epithelium basal lamina.

efferent
smooth muscle

53

The efferent ductules are lined by pseudostratified columnar cells composed of alternating clusters of _____ cuboidal cells and ____ columnar cells

non-ciliated
ciliated

54

The excretory genital ducts are the ____, the _____, and the ____

epididymis
vas deferens
urethra

55

The epididymis is surrounded by smooth muscular ____ layers that use ____ contractions to move sperm towards the ductus deferens

circular
peristaltic

56

The epididymis is lined by a ____ columnar epithelium with 2 cell types: ___ and ____

pseduostratified
basal
principal

57

____ cells of the epididymis are round, undifferentiated precursors of the other type of cells (____)

basal (principal)

58

___ cells of the epididymis are columnar and have nonmotile _____ on the luminal surface

principal
sterocilia

59

The cytoplasm of principal cells contains large _____, lysosomes, and many apically located ____ vesicles for fluid reabsorption

golgi
pinocytotic

60

____ cells secrete carnitine, sialic acid, and glycerophosphocholine (inhibits ____)

principal
capacitation = process by which sperm become capable of fertilizing an oocyte

61

The ductus deferens is characterized by a thick ____ wall, consisting of inner and outer layers of longitudinally oriented smooth muscle seperated by one another by a middle ____ layer

muscular
circular

62

The ductus deferens has a narrow lumen lined by a _____ columnar epithelium

pseudostratified

63

The ____ ____ secrete the majority of the fluid in semen

seminal vesicles

64

The height of seminal vesicles varies with levels of ____. These vesicles contain ____ ____ ____ granules and secretory granules

testosterone
yellow lipochrome pigment

65

The lamina propria of seminal vesicles consists of ____ CT surrounded by an inner ____ and outer _____ smooth muscle layer

fibroelastic
circular
longitudinal

66

Seminal vesicles also contain ___ outside the lamina propria

adventitia

67

The secretory product of seminal vesicles is a viscous fluid containing substances such as ____ that ____ sperm

fructose
activate

68

The ejaculatory duct is a straight continuation of the ductus deferens and receives the duct of the seminal vesicle. It lacks a ____ _____

muscular wall

69

The prostate gland consists of discrete _____ _____ glands that empty contents into the ____ ____

branched tubuloaveloar
prostatic urethra

70

The three prostatic glands are _____, which secretes directly into the urethra, and ___ and ___, which secrete into ducts that empty into the prostatic sinus

mucosal
submucosal, main

71

The prostate gland has a ____ capsule that contains smooth muscle. Septa from the capsule penetrate the gland and divide it into ____

fibroelastic
lobes

72

The prostate epithelium is simple or ______ ______

pseudostratified columnar

73

Basal cells of the prostate gland produce a high molecular weight _____

keratin

74

Corpora amylacia are ____ in the lumen of alveoli composed of glycoprotein. These may become ____ and increase in numbers with age

concretions
calcified

75

Prostatic secretions are a thin fluid containing proteolytic enxymes that is regulated by ____

dihydrotestosterone

76

Differences in high molecular weight _____ expression are a diagnostic feature for normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic prostate

keratin

77

The ____ ____ is the hallmark of the prostate gland

corpora amylacia

78

Bulbourethral glands are lined by _____ or ____ epithelioum

simple cuboidal, simple columnar

79

Bulbourethral glands have many _____ secreting cells

mucous

80

The ____ ____ of the penis contains irregular vascular spaces lined by a continuous layer of epithelium. Spaces are sperated from each other by connective tissue trabeculae and smooth muscle

corpus cavernosum

81

The vascular spaces in corpus cavernosum ____ in size towards the periphery of the corpus cavernosum

decrease

82

During erection, _____ impulse constrict arteriovenous shunts and dilate the _____ arteries, causing the vascular spaces to become engorged with blood

parasympathetic
helicine

83

The corpus spongiosum is a single mass of _____ tissue. It has trabeculae that have ____ elastic fibers and ____ smooth muscle than those of the corpora cavernosa

erectile
more
less

84

bulbourethral glands have ____ muscle associated next to it

skeletal

85

The ____ ____ is a thick fibrous connective sheath surrounding the corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum. The arrangement of dense collagen bundles permits ____ of the penis during erection

tunica albuginea
extension

86

The glans penis is the dilated distal end of the corpus ______. It contains dense connective tissue and _____ muscle fibers. It is covered by a prepuce, which is lined by stratified _____ ____ epithelium

spongiosum
longitudinal
squamous nonkeratinized

87

____ _ ____ are mucous secreting glands present throughout the length of the penile urethra

Glands of littre

88

remember cryptochordism

okay

89

_____ syndrome is caused by an excess number of X chromosomes. It is characterized by a tall thin stature, some mental retardation, ____ testes, _____ gonadotropin levels, and infertility

klinefelter's (usually XXY)
small
elevated

90

Developmental defects like klinefelters are regulated by ____ gene.

SRY

91

_____ syndrome is a heriditary disorder marked my immoitle cilia that results in ____ in men

kartagener's
infertility

92

remember hypospadia

okay