Flashcards in Dissection 4 Deck (66)
What is the superior border of the popliteal fossa?
What is the superolateral border of the popliteal fossa?
What is the inferior border of the popliteal fossa?
medal and lateral heads of gastrocnemius
Where does the small saphenous vein drain into the popliteal vein?
passing through the deep fascia (popliteal fascia) in the median plane of the limb
Where is the neurovascular bundle foudn in the popliteal fossa?
median plane of the fossa
What are the contents of the neurovascular bundle in the popliteal fossa from superficial to deep?
tibial nerve; popliteal vein; popliteal artery
What is the popliteal vein a continuation of?
posterior tibial veins
Where are the popliteal lymph nodes located?
along the poplitea vein in the fossa
What is the route of the common fibular nerve in the popliteal fossa?
skirts the lateral border of the fossa, deep to biceps femoris tendon leaving the fossa between that tendon and the lateral head of gastrocnemius to reach the fibular neck
What does the common fibular nerve divide into?
deep and superficial fibular nerves
What nerves supply skin and fascia on the posterolateral aspect of hte leg and foot?
What are the sural cutaneous nerves derived from?
both the tibial and common fibular give off a branch: tibial-medial sural cutaneous nerve; common fibular- lateral sural cutaneous nerve
How do the medial sural cutaneous nerve and the lateral sural cutaneous nerve communicate with each other?
sural communicating branch
What forms the sural nerve?
medial sural cutaneous nerve plus the fibres in the communicating branch
What does the sural nerve follow in the posterior leg?
small saphenous vein
What muscles lie deep to the lateral head of gastrcneumius?
small plantaris muscles and popliteal muscle
What does the tibial nerve give branches to whilst in the popliteal fossa?
both heads of gastrocneumius and the plantaris muscles and the popliteus muscle
What nerve can be dammaged in fractures of the fibular neck?
common fibular nerve
What are the superfiical muscles of the posterior leg?
gastrocnemius; soleus; plantaris
What are the deep muscles of posterior leg?
flexor hallucis longus; flexor digitorum longus; tibialis posterior; popliteus
What are the general actions of hte posterior leg?
plantar flexion of the ankle and toes
What does the tibialis posterior assist tibialis anterior to do?
inversion of the foot
What nerve supplues the posterior leg?
How does the tibial nerve travel through the posterior leg compartment?
deep of soleus in the company of the posterior tibial arery (and accompanying veins)
What accompanies the tendons of the deep muscles of the posterior compartment to the sole of the foot?
posterior tibial aretry and the tibial nerve
What is the order from anterior to posterior of the deep muscle tendons and accompanying structures leaving the posterior compartment?
tendon of Tibialis posterior
tendon of Flexor digitorum longus
posterior tibial artery
tendon of flexor hallucis longus
What is the mnemonic for remembering the deep muscle tendons and atructures order in going to the sole of foot?
Tom, Dick ANd Harry
How do Tom, Dick ANd Harry reach the sole of the foot?
pass posterior to the medial malleolus and deep to the flexor retinaculum
What are the 2 heads and muscle bellies of gastrocnemius?
medial and lateral
What are the proximal attachments for gastrocnemius?
medial and lateral femoral condyles
What is the distal atttachment for the gastrocnemius?
calcaneus via the Achilles tendon
What are the actions of gastrocnemius?
weak knee flexor and powerful ankle plnatar-flexor
What are the proximal attachments for the soleus muscle?
neck of the fibula and the soleal line of the tibia
What is the distal attachment for the soleus muscle?
calcaneu via the Achilles tendon
What does the popliteal artery divide into immediately distal to the popliteal fossa?
anterior and posterior tibial arteries
Where does the fibular artery come from?
it is a branch of the posterior tibial artery
What does the anterior tibial artery supply?
anterior compartment of the leg
How does the anterior tibial artery reach the anterior compartment of the leg?
pierces the interosseus membrane
what does the posterior tibial artery supply?
posterior compartment of hte leg
What does the posterior tibial artery run with?
How does the posterior tibial artery run in the posterior leg?
mainly between the superficial and deep muscles
What does the posterior tibial artery divide into in the foot?
medial and lateral plantar arteries
What does the fibular artery supply?
lateral compartment of the leg
How does the fibular artery supply the lateral compartment of the leg?
descends in the posterior compartment on the posterior intermuscalr septum and sends perforating branches through the septum to the lateral compartment
What does the popliteal muscle attach to proximally?
lateral surface of lateral condyle of femur and lateral meniscus: within the cavity of the knee joint
What is the distal attachment fo the popliteus muscle?
posterior surface of tibia, superior to soleal line
What is the proximal attachment for the flexor hallucis longus?
inferior 2/3rds of the posterior surface of fibular and inferior part of interosseus membrane
What is the proximal attachment for the flexor digitorum longus?
medial part of posterior surface of tibia inf. to soleal line and by a broan tendon to fibula
What is the distal attachmetn for flexor hallucis longus?
base of distal phalanx of great toe
What is the distal attachment for flexor digitorum longus?
bases of distal phalanges of lateral 4 digits
What is the proximal attachment for tibialis posterior?
interosseus membrane, posterior surface of tibia inf. to soleal line and posterior surface of fibula
What is the distal attachment for tibialis posterior?
tuberosity of navicular
What is the action of popliteus?
weak flexion of knee
What is the action of flexor hallucis longus?
flexes great toe; weakly plantarflexes ankle and supports medial arch of foot
What is the action of flexor digitorum longus>
flexes lateral 4 digits; plantarflexes ankle and support longitudinal arches of foot
What is the action of tibialis posterior?
plantarflexes ankle; inverts foot; supports medial longitudinal arch of foot
What is the proximal attachment of the plantaris muclse?
inferior end of latereal supracondylar line of femur and oblique popliteal ligmanet
What is the distal attachment of plantaris?
posterior surface of calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
What is the actions of the superficial muscles of posteior leg?
plantarflexion of the ankle
When do the femoral artery and vein become the popliteal artery and vein?
as they pass through the adductor hiatus into the popliteal fossa
What is the deepest structure of the neurovascular structures?
What is the crural fascia?
deep fascia of the leg
What is the flexor retinaculum?
a thickening of the crural fascia between the postero-inferior aspect of the medial malleolus and calcaneus
Where is the plantaris tendon found?
immediately deep to gastrocnemius
What are the muscles of the deep compartment of the leg from medial to lateral?
flexor digitorum longus; tibialis posterior; flexor hallucis longus