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Flashcards in DNA Deck (15):
1

How are nucleotides joined together?

Condensation

2

How are the bonds between nucleotides called?

Nucleic Acid (DE: Nukleinsäuren )

3

When is nucleic acid (DE: Nukleinsäuren) called RNA?

When the sugar part is ribose then the nucleic acid is called RNA. If the sugar part is deoxyribose this nucleic acid is called DNA.

4

When is the nucleic acid called DNA?

The nucleic acid is called DNA when the sugar part is deoxyribose.

5

What are pyrimidines (DE: Pyrimidin)?

Thymine, Uracil, Cytosin

They are the smaller ones.


 

6

What are the purines (DE: Purin)?

Adenin, Guanin

They are the bigger ones.

7

Explain the semiconservative replication

The semiconservative replication is when the new DNA molecule consists of one conserved strand plus one newly built strand.

The steps are as follows: 

  • double helix is untwisted
  • hydrogen bonds between the bases are broken apart to unzip the DNA
  • free DNA nucleotides are hydrogen-bonded onto the exposed bases according to the base-pairing rules
  • covalent bonds are formed between the phosphate of one nucleotide and the sugar of the next to seal the backbone

8

What are the base pairing rules?

In the DNA:

A (Adenine)/ T (Thymine)
"Apfel und Titi"

C (Cytosine) /G (Guanine)
"Cowboy und Gandalf"

9

How are nucleotides bond together?

Nucleotides are bond together by hydrogen bonds.

10

Describe the difference of RNA and DNA

  • the sugar molecule that makes up the nucleotides is ribose (in RNA)
  • the nitrogenous (stickstoffhaltig) base uracil is found instead of the oraganic base thymine(RNA)
  • the polynucleotide chain is usually single-stranded (einzelstraengig)
  • three forms of RNA molecule exist (mRNA, rRNA, tRNA)

11

What are the base-pairing (Basenpaarung) rules for RNA?

A/U
"Apfel und Unterhose"

"C/G"
"Cowboy und Gandalf"

12

What happnes to exposed DNA nucleotides?

If DNA are exposed free RNA nucleotides form complementary hydrogen-bonds with them and form a RNA chain→transcription

13

14

Name the 3 forms of RNA

mRNA, rRNA, tRNA

15