Aufbau der Lunge
How much is the surface area of the lung?
70m^2 (half the size of a tennis court)
How is the diffusion distance in the lung reduced?
both the alveolus (Lungenblaeschen) and the capillary (Kapillare) is just one cell thick
both walls consist of squamous cells (very thin cells)
the capillaries are in close contact with the alveolus walls
capillaries are so thin that red blood cells are squeezed to the wall
Why is surfactant (DE: Tensid) produced?
Surfactant is produced to reduce the cohesive force between the water molecules. Without that the alveolus would collapse.
Why is the diffusion gradient in the lungs so steep?
Because as follows:
Concentration of ...
O2 alveolus>O2 blood
CO2 alveolus< CO2 blood
Explain the structure of bronchioles (DE: Bronchiole)!
Which parts of the lung have the C-ring cartilages?
Trachea (DE: Luftroehre), bronchi (DE: Bronchien)
Name the 2 types of cells int the trachea and bronchi
cilicated epithelium (DE: das Flimmerepithel),goblet cells (DE: Becherzelle)
Which structure supports the trachea and bronchi?
cartilage (DE: Knorpel)
Which structure constricts the airway?
Which structure widens the airway?
if smooth muscles contract to constrict the airway it cannot reverse this effect so elastic fibers are needed
Which cell secrets mucus (DE: Schleim)?
Goblet cells (DE: Becherzelle)
they remove thinn particles form the airway and the mucus transported to the stomach to kill the bacteria
Name the 6 different lung volumes
expiratory reserve volume
"Vendetta in Tameike, death rules everyday."
How do you call the air volume which is moved in and out during breathing at rest?
tidal volume (DE: Atemzugvolumen)
What is the maximal air volume that can be moved in and out?
this is called the vital capacity (DE: Vitalkapazität)
How much air remains in the lung after the exhalation?
this is the residual volume (Residualvolumen)
What is the inspiratory reserve volumen (DE: Komplementaerluft)?
The inspiratory reserve volume is how much air you can breath in above the normal tidal volume when you take a big breath.
What is the expiratory reserve volume (expiratorische Reservevolumen)?
This is how much air you can breath out abouve the normal tidal volume when you take a big breath.