Drug Classes Flashcards Preview

NUR256- 2016 > Drug Classes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Drug Classes Deck (25):
1

What are the possible adverse effects of Penicillin?

Possible adverse effects are:
-Diarrhoea
-Nausea and vomiting
-headache
-sore mouth or tongue
-oral or vaginal candidiasis
-allergic reactions
-anaphylaxis
-serum sickness type reaction (joint pain, fever, rash)
-hive
-pruritis

2

What class is Doxycycline and how does it work?

Doxycycline is apart of the tetracycline class.
It is bacteriostatic and works by inhibiting protein synthesis.

3

What are some possible adverse effects that can happen taking Doxycycline?

Possible adverse effects could be:
-oesophagitis
-ataxia
-GI distress
-photosensitivity
-rectal or vaginal fungal overgrowth

4

What class does Gentamicin come under and what is its mechanism of action?

Gentamicin is apart of the Aminoglycosides.
It works by inhibiting protein synthesis.

5

What are the possible adverse effects that come about from taking Gentamicin?

Adverse effects could be:
-nausea and vomiting
-tinnitus
-increase or decrease of urinary frequency
-ataxia
-dizziness
-nephrotoxicity
-neurotoxicity
-hypersensitivity
-peripheral neuritis

6

What class does Cephalexin come under and how does the mechanism of action work?

Cephalexin is apart of the Cephalosporins class.
It works by inhibiting the cell wall synthesis

7

What are the possible adverse effects of Cephalexin?

Possible adverse effects could be:
-Diarrhoea
-abdominal cramp or distress
-oral and vaginal candidiasis
-rash
-pruritis
-redness
-oedema
-allergic reaction
-anaphylaxis
-renal toxicity
-convulsions
-neurotoxicity
-haemolytic anaemia
-Stevens-Johnson syndrome

8

What class does Ciprofloxacin come under and what is its mechanism of action?

Ciprofloxacin is a Fluroquinolones class and it works by interfering with the enzymes involved in the supercooling of DNA which is necessary for duplication, transcription and repair.

9

What are the possible adverse effects of Ciprofloxacin?

Possible adverse effects are:
-dizziness
-drowsiness
-restlessness
-stomach distress
-diarrhoea
-nausea and vomiting
-photosensitivity

10

What class is penicillin and how does it work?

Penicillin is apart of the moderate spectrum Beta-lac tamale sensitive amino penicillins group.
It is bactericidal and works by weakening cell walls resulting in lysis and death.

11

What class is Bethanechol and how does it work?

Bethanechol is a muscarinic agonist and is apart of the parasympathomimetic drugs. It mimics the action of acetycholine on the muscarinic receptors.

12

what are the adverse reactions to Bethanechol?

Possible adverse reactions are:
-abdominal pain or upset
- increased salivation and sweating
- nausea and vomiting
- flushed skin
-blurred or disturbed vision
-unsteadiness
-headache
-diarrhoea

13

What are muscarinic antagonists (Atropine) and synthetic derivatives used for?

Used clinically as mydriatics, cyclopegics and in the treatment of bladder dysfunction and Parkinson's disease. They are used as a preanaesthetic drugs to decrease secretions.

14

What class is Sevoflurane and what is its mechanism of action?

Sevoflurane is an inhalation anaesthetic. It works by reaching concentration in the blood that causes CNS depression and therefore anaesthesia

15

What are some adverse reactions of Sevoflurane?

Some adverse reactions of Sevoflurane are:
- cardiac depression
-respiratory depression
- shivering and salivation
- post operative nausea and vomitting

16

What class is Nitrous Oxide and what is its mechanism of action?

Nitrous Oxide is apart of the inhalation anaesthetics and works as an analgesic via opioid receptors and anxiolytic due to enhancement of GABA mediated CNS depression.

17

What are some adverse effects that can occur by taking nitrous oxide?

Some adverse effects that could arise are:
-hypoxia
- mild cardiac depression
-post operative nausea and vomiting
-delerium

18

What class is Diazepam and how does it work?

Diazepam is apart of the Benzodiazepines class of drug. It is long acting which acts in the limbic system and reticular formation to potentiate effects of GABA (an inhibitory neurotransmitter)

19

What are the adverse effects that could happen while taking Diazepam?

Some adverse effects that could happen while on Diazepam are:
-mild drowsiness
-depression
-lethargy
-apathy (lack of interest)
-fatigue
-restlessness
-bradycardia
-tachycardia
-constipation
-diarrhoea
-incontinence
-urinary retention
-changes in libido
-drug dependance

20

What class is Thiopentone and what is its mechanism of action?

Thiopentone is an ultra chort acting barbiturate type agent.
GA via suppression of reticular activating system

21

What are some adverse effects that could happen while on Thiopentone?

Some adverse effects while on Thiopentone are:
-shivering and trembling
-N & V
-prolonged somnolence (sleepiness)
-prolonged headache

22

What class is Fentanyl and what is its mechanism of action?

Fentanyl is a (synthetic) opiod analgesic ans works by binding to the bodies opioid receptors.

23

What adverse effects may occur when taking Fentanyl?

Some adverse effects that may occur when taking Fentanyl are:
-rash and itching
-constipation

24

What class is Temazepam and what is its mechanism of action?

Temazepam is a (short acting) benzodiazepine. It acts as a modulatory site to facilitate GABA binding to GABA receptors to enhance chloride channel opening and leading to more neuronal inhibition.

25

What adverse effects may occur on Temazepam?

soem adverse effects that may occur on Temazepam are:
-CNS depression
-drowsiness
-ataxia (lack of voluntary body movement)
-diplopia (double vision)
-vertigo
-lassitude (lack of energy)
-memory loss
-slurred speach
-loss of dexterity