Short answer questions 9-14 Flashcards Preview

NUR256- 2016 > Short answer questions 9-14 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Short answer questions 9-14 Deck (29):
1

What will a positive inotrope do?

It will increase the myocardial contraction leading to an increase in cardiac output

2

What will a positive chronotrope do?

It will increase the heart rate.

3

Tetracyclines include?

-Minocycline
-doxycycline
-tigecycline

4

Clinical uses of oestrogen include?

-oral contraceptives
-hormone replacement therapy in menopause
- disorders of menstruation
-replacement therapy
-prostatic cancer (some breast cancers and selected male carcinomas)
-hirsutism

5

the intrinsic pathway of coagulation involves?

chemical substances that are normally found in the circulating blood

6

Testosterone is indicated for?

-hormone replacement therapy in males with androgen deficiency

7

Drug interactions are broadly classified as either?

-pharmacodynamic
or
-pharmacokinetic interactions

8

Thrombolytic (fibrinolytic) drugs are used to treat?

Acute thromboembolic disorders

9

Cardiac Output is a function of both?

Stroke volume (SV) and heart rate (HR)

10

Septicaemia refers to?

a systemic infection caused by microorganism multiplication in the circulation

11

Anticoagulant drug therapy is primarily prophylactic because?

agents act by preventing fibrin deposits, extension of a thrombus and thromboembolic complications

12

Treatment of an infectious disease depends on?

the microorganism responsible, and different groups of antimicrobial drugs are used to treat different groups of microorganisms.

13

Penicillins can be broadly divided into?

-narrow-spectrum penicillins
-narrow-spectrum penicillinase resistant penicillin
-moderate-specrum B-lactamase-sensitive aminopenicillins
-broad & extended-spectrum penicillins

14

Tear fluid is lost by?

evaporation and nasolacrimal drainage

15

The factors that regulate stroke volume include?

the degree of stretch of heart fibres before contraction (preload), the force of contraction of the ventricles and the pressure that must be overcome before ventricles can eject the blood (afterload)

16

The duration of action of acetylcholine is brief because?

It is rapidly hydrolysed by acetycholinesterase, which is found in high concentrations in the synaptic cleft.

17

neuropathic pain responds less well to?

Opioids and NSAIDs

18

The 3 subtypes of muscarinic receptors that are relevant phamacologically are?

- (M1)= neural type
- (M2) presynaptic type
-(M3) = the glandular or smooth muscle type

19

Septicaemia refers to?

a systemic infection caused by microorganism multiplication in the circulation

20

Nociceptives pain is?

physiological pain, arising from stimulation of superficial or visceral (deep) nociceptors by noxious

21

Neuropathic pain arises from?

A primary lesion or dysfunction in the somatosensory nervous system pathway

22

The 4 characteristic signs of inflammation are?

-swelling
-redness
-pain
-heat

23

The therapeutic properties of NSAIDs include?

-analgesic
-antipyretic
-anti inflammatory

24

What do drugs that have positive inotropic effect do and list some of these drugs.

Positive inotropic drugs increase the force of myocardial contraction.
Some positive inotropic drugs are:
-digoxin
-dobutamine
-adrenaline
-isoprenaline

25

What do drugs that have a negative inotropic effect do and list some of these drugs.

Negative inotropic drugs decrease the force of myocardial contraction.
Some negative inotropic drugs are:
-propranolol

26

what do positive chronotropic drugs do and list some of these drugs.

Positive chronotropic drugs accelerate the HR by increasing the rate of impulse formation in the SA node.
Adrenaline is a drug that has a positive chronotropic effect.

27

What do negative chronotropic effect drugs do and list some of these drugs.

Negative chronotropic drugs slows the HR by decreasing impulse formation.
Some negative chronotropic drugs are:
-digoxin
-ivabradine

28

What do positive dromotropic effect drugs do and can you list one?

Positive dromotropic effect drugs increase the conduction velocity. One positive dromotropic drug is phenytoin

29

What do negative dromotropic drugs do and can you list one?

Negative dromotropic effect drugs delays conduction. One dromotropic effect drug is verapamil.