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Flashcards in Short answer questions Deck (56):
1

Prescribing by generic name helps....

-Avoid confusion
-reduce cost
-reduce medication errors

2

The standard for the uniform scheduling of medicines and poisons classifies drugs in....

-relation to safety
-availability to the public and
-their therapeutic uses

3

Three processes that contribute to the renal excretion of drugs are...

-Glomerular filtration
-secretion and
-reabsorption

4

A hallucinogen is a drug that....

produces auditory or visual hallucinations

5

Drug therapy of angina is aimed at either...

-relaxing coronary artery smooth muscle to improve perfusion
-decreasing metabolic demand of heart or both

6

Drug groups used in the treatment of asthma include...

-Bronchodilators- short acting b2 adrenoreceptor agonists, theophylline and anticholinergics
-Symptom controllers- long acting beta 2 adrenoceptor agonists
-preventor- inhaled corticosteroids, cromones, leukotriene receptor antagonists

7

Name 2 principle factors that determine oral bioavailability.

The amount of drug absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
The amount of drug escaping extraction.

8

Drug distribution involves?

The process of reversible transfer of a drug between one location and another in the body

9

List 3 factors that contribute to interindividual variability in drug metabolism

-genetics
-environmental factors
-age and gender
-disease state
-hormonal changes

10

Off-label prescribing refers to?

A drug being prescribed for an indication, a patient group or by a route not included in the approved information.

11

Polypharmacy is?

The concurrent use of multiple medications, usually 5 or more drugs including all prescribed, OTC and CAM medicines

12

To be listed by the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme as a subsidised drug requires the drug to be?

Safe and effective but also cost effective

13

A drug is defined as?

Any substance or product that is used or intended to be used to modify or explore physiological systems or pathological states for the benefit of the recipient.

14

Pharmacodynamics is defined as?

The study of the interaction between drug, the target and the response. Refers to what the drug does in the body

15

Pharmacokinetics s defined as?

What the body does to the drug, including how the body breaks down the drug; how the drug is absorbed or metabolised in the body.

16

Amphetamine have 4 main effects on the CNS. What are they?

1. Euphoria
2. Locomotor stimulation (increased alertness)
3.Anorexia (appetite suppression)
4.Stereotyped behaviours (repeated inappropriate actions)

17

The quality use of medicines requires?

Selecting management options wisely.
Choosing suitable medicines if a drug is considered advisable.
Using medicines safely and effectively

18

List 4 factors that influence changing patterns of drug use.

-new technologies
-new uses for old drugs
-better understanding of mechanisms
-changes in popularity
-better understanding of aetiology

19

To be listed by the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme as a subsidised drug requires the drug to be?

Not only safe & effective but also cost effective

20

List 4 factors that may affect patient compliance

-bad taste or pain on admission
-adverse effects occurring
-cost or difficulty obtaining medicines
-poor communication
-lack of support

21

Enteric coated drugs are used to?

Prevent decomposing of chemically sensitive drugs by gastric secretions.
Provide delayed reaction.
Prevent dilution of the drug before reaching the intestines

22

Drugs not considered safe enough for use by the general public without medical supervision are restricted to?

Prescription only status

23

Typically OTC products include?

-paracetamol
-antihistamines
-decongestant
-antidiarrhetics

24

An OTC or Prescription-Only drug may fall into various drug schedules depending on?

-does to be administered
-Strength of the drug
-number in the pack
-route given
- condition for which it is indicated

25

The regulation of medicinal drugs in Australia has 3 primary aims?

1. To control the supply of drugs prone to abuse
2. To regulate the availability of substances for therapeutic use (safety & quality)
3. To include certain products on government sponsored assistance schemes

26

The Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) is a program in which?

Already registered drugs deemed to be essential to the community but too expensive for individual purchase are partially subsidised by the government

27

Variables that affect drug absorption are?

-nature of absorbing surface
-solubility of the drug
-ionisation

28

The 2 principal factors that determine oral bioavailability are?

- the amount of drug absorbed in the GI tract
- the amount of drug escaping extraction

29

Drug distribution involves?

The process of reversible transfer of a drug between one location and another in the body.

30

Drug metabolism reactions are classified as?

Either functional or conjugation

31

The 3 processes that contribute to the renal excretion of drugs are?

- diffusion
-transported across the apical membrane
-transported into the bile

32

Harmful effects of sleep deprivation include?

-depression
-mental disturbances
-hallucinations
-metabolic derangements

33

All hypnotic and sedative drugs are?

Not recommended for patients over 60 years as they are drugs of dependence

34

The main differences between sedatives and hypnotics is?

Hypnotics induce sleep while sedatives reduce alertness, consciousness, nervousness and produce a calming effect.
One major difference is the degree of CNS depression induced.

35

The main indications for benzodiazepines are?

-anxiety disorders
-insomnia
- sleep disturbances
- seizure disorders
- alcohol withdrawals
-muscle spasm
-panic disorders
-to calm aggressive patients

36

The anti epileptic drug selected for therapy depends on?

The type of seizure

37

Extra pyramidal effects include?

Those involving motor stimulation mediated via pathways in the extrapyramidal system

38

Antidepressant drugs are effective in the treatment of?

-moderate to severe depressive disorders
-PTSD
-neuroses (anxiety disorder, OCD, eating disorder, panic disorder)

39

Amphetamine-like drugs approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders are?

-dexamphetamines
-lisdexamfetamine
-methylphenidate

40

4 main central actions of amphetamine-like drugs are?

-euphoria
-locomotor stimulation
-anorexia
-stereotyped behaviours

41

Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine are?

Methylxanthines- naturally occurring chemicals found in beverages - tea, coffee, cola

42

Caffeine is indicated clinically for the treatment of?

-respiratory disorders- bronchodilator
-apnoea
-asthma
-COPD

43

Vasodilator drugs are used for the treatment of a variety of disorders including?

-angina
-shock
-cardiac failure
-hypertension
-peripheral vascular conditions

44

Drug therapy of angina is aimed at?

-relaxing coronary artery smooth muscle thus improving perfusion
-reducing metabolic demand

45

the overriding goal go anti hypertensive drug therapy is?

To manage it through non pharmacological ways (lifestyle changes)

46

The main classes of lipid-lowering drugs are?

-statins
-bile acid binding resins
-fibrates
-fish oil

47

Management strategies for dyslipidaemia include?

- dietary modifications
-modifiable risk factors

48

Bronchodilation occurs by stimulation of?

B2-adrenoreceptors

49

Mucolytics are?

Drugs that help to disintegrate mucus from the lungs

50

Expectorants aid in?

The removal of sputum from the bronchial passage.

51

Oxygen is a therapeutic gas essential to life and is used to treat?

-hypoxia
-hypoxaemia
-influenza
-cyanosis
-shock

52

Drugs used in the treatment of asthma include?

-Relievers = Bronchodilators- B2 receptor agonists=theophyllines & anticholinergics
-Preventers- inhaled corticosteroids= leutrotriene
-Symptom controllers-

53

Cough suppressants are use to?

-decrease intensity & frequency of the cough
-permit adequate elimination of tracheobronchial secretions and exudate

54

Drugs that neutralise or inhibit gastric acid secretion include?

-omeprazole
-lansoprazole
-pantoprazole
-robeprazole
-esomeprazole

55

Causes of constipation include?

-disordered bowel habits
-various disease states
-lack of dietary fibre
-drug or lack of fluid intake

56

Drug causing constipation include?

-aluminium antacids
-anticholinergics
-tricyclics
-antidepressants
-opioids
-calcium channel blockers
-verapamil
-amodipine