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NUR256- 2016 > Definitions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Definitions Deck (55):

Testosterone is indicated for?

Hormonal replacement therapy in males with androgen deficiency


Thrombolytic (fibrinolytic) drugs are used for?

Acute thromboembolic disorders


Anole antifungals affect the biosynthesis of?

Fungal ergo sterols by interfering with the cytochrome P450 dependent enzyme llano sterol demethylase that catalyses ergosterol formation


Androgens, primarily testosterone, are the steroidal male sex hormones necessary for the normal?

Development and maintenance old male sex functions and characteristics


Haemostatic and anti fibrinolytic drugs are used to?

Hasten clot formation and reduce bleeding


Drug interactions are classified as either?

Pharmacodynamics or pharmacokinetic interactions


Glomerular filtration is the initial step in urine formation and involves?

Ultrafiltration of water and small salutes through pores of the glomerular capillaries into the capsular space of the Bowman's capsule.


Immunosuppressant drugs?

Decrease or prevent an immune response


Diuresis is defined as?

Increased formation and excretion of urine


Carbapenems have a wide spectrum of activity against?

Gram positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic organisms.


Neurotransmission is the process whereby?

A neurotransmitter released from a pre synaptic nerve terminal crosses the synapse and interacts with a receptor on the membrane of the post synaptic cell.


Neuropathic pain arises from?

Primary lesion or dysfunction in the somatosensory nervous system pathways.


Selective toxicity exploits differences in?

Biochemical pathways between normal hosts cells and neoplasticism cells to minimise adverse effects


Neuropathic pain responds less well to?

Opioids and NSAIDs


Growth fraction is the?

Cell population in the tumour that is actively engaged in cell cycling compared to the population in the GO phase.


The physiological actions of progesterone are to?

Stimulate the secretory phase; maintain endometrium in preparation for implantation and nourishment; decrease the level of ofluteneinising hormone and the synthesis of oestrogen receptors; relax uterine smooth muscle; and increase core body temperature


The cardiac output is a function of both?

The degree of stretch of heart fibres before contraction (preload), the force of contraction of the ventricles and the pressure that must be overcome before the ventricles can eject the blood (after load)


selective toxicity exploits differences in?

Biochemical pathways between normal host cells and neoplastic cells to minimise adverse effects


Tear fluids is lost by?

Evaporation and nasolacrimal drainage


The therapeutic properties of NSAIDs include?

Analgesic, antiinflammatory and anti-pyre tic effects


The vitreous humour is a?

Gel like viscous fluid-collagen matrix that comprises about 80% of the volume of the eye and bathes the retina.


The 3 subtypes of muscrainic receptors that are relevant pharmacologically are?

-the neural type (M1)
-the cardiac and pre synaptic type (M2)
- the glandular or smooth muscle type (M3)


The 4 different types of allergic or hypersensitivity reactions are ?

-Type 1 =immediate or anaphylactic
-type II = antibody-dependent
-type III =complex mediated
-type IV =delayed hypersensitivity


Angiogenesis is?

The growth of new blood vessels


Anticoagulant drug therapy is primarily prophylactic because?

Agents act by preventing fibrin deposits, extension of a thrombus and thromboembolic complications


Selective oestrogen receptor modulators include?



Tocolytics relax the?

Uterus and delay labour or inhibit threatened abortion


Immunosuppressant drugs?

Decrease or prevent an immune response


Growth fraction is the?

Cell population the tumour that is activity engaged in cell cycling compared to the population in the GO phase.


Oxytocin are agents that?

Stimulate contraction of the smooth muscle of the uterus, resulting in contractions and labour


Neuro chemical transmission refers to the?

Passage of a nerve impulse from one neuron to another ( e.g. Autonomic ganglia) or from a neuron to an effective via a chemical signal


Tetracyclines include:



The intrinsic pathway of coagulation involves:

Chemical substances that are normally found in the circulating blood.


Clinical uses of oestrogen so include?

-oral contraceptives
-hormone replacement therapy in the menopause
- disorders of menstruation
-replacement therapy (oestrogen deficiency, atrophic vaginitis, female hypogonadism)
-prostatic cancer, some breat cancers and selected male breast carcinomas


responses mediated by alpha-adrenoceptor stimulation include?

Arteriolar vasoconstriction that increases peripheral resistance and BP, pupil dilation, relaxation of gastrointestinal smooth muscle and contraction of gastrointestinal sphincter so and increased smooth muscle tone of the bladder


Septicaemia refers to?

Systemic infection caused by microorganism multiplication in the circulation


The aim of combined oral contraceptives are to?

Mimic closely the sequence and relative levels of oestrogen and progesterone in the menstrual cycle


Functions of the hypothalamus include?

Control of the autonomic nervous system, control of the autonomic nervous system, control of the pituitary gland, regulation of emotional and behavioural patterns and regulation of thirst and hunger


Antiviral (non-retro viral) drugs are used in?

The treatment of viral infections due to DNA and RNA viruses (excluding retroviruses, .g. HIV)


Bactericidal agents cause?

Bacterial cell death and lysis and eradicate the infection


Mediators involved in the transmission or pain relief of pain include?

-gama-aminobutyric acid
-endogenous opioids


Development of antiretroviral drugs has been impeded by?

The fact that viruses are simply either double stranded DNA or single stranded RNA contained within a capsid (vial protein coat), and they lack any metabolic capacity


Androgens, primary testosterone are steroidal male sex hormones necessary for the normal?

Development and maintenance of male sex functions and characteristics


Uveoscleral outflow if the?

flow of aqeous humour between the lens and the iris, where it drains through a trabecular meshwork called the canal of schlemm.


The estrogens component of combined oral contraceptives cause?

The decreased FSH release and thus impaired selection of a dominant ovarian follicle development, with consequent decreased likelihood of ovulation and decreased chance of implantation.


The extrinsic pathway is activated within seconds by?

trauma to the vascular wall or to tissue external to the blood vessels.


A drug to drug interaction occurs when?

the drugs pharmacological effect is altered by another drug that is; an increased therapeutic and/or adverse effect or a decreased therapeutic and/or adverse effect.


Strategies to combat antimicrobial drug resistance include?

-encouraging optimal use of antimicrobial
-selective control, restriction or removal of antimicrobial agents or classes
-use of antimicrobial drugs in rotation of cyclic patterns
-use of combination of antimicrobial drugs to prevent emergence of resistance.


Beta-adrenoceptors are subdivided in 3 types?

- B1


Haemostasis is a process that spontaneously?

stops bleeding from the damaged blood vessel.


The intrinsic pathway of coagulation involves?

the vascular wall or to tissue external to the blood vessels


The goal of antimicrobial therapy is to?

Destroy or suppress the growth of infecting microorganisms so that normal host defences and other supporting mechanisms can control the infection, resulting in a cure.


Muscle contraction occurs following?

binding of 2 molecules of acetycholine to the sub units of the NM receptor, which opens the ion channel allowing sodium ions to flow inwards causing depolarization of the motor-end plate, which triggers the muscle action potential.


gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anerobic organisms?

carbapenems have wide spectrum of activity against.


Penicillins can be broadly divided into?

- narrow spectrum penicillins
-narrow spectrum penicillinase
-resistant penicillins with antistaphylococcal activity
-moderate spectrum B-lactamase-sensitive aminopenicillins
-broad and extended spectrum penicillins