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Flashcards in Drugs Deck (57):
1

Maropitant (Cerenia)

> Very effective anti-emetic
- Use in acute gastroenteritis, cytotoxic induced vomiting, motion sickness [higher dose]
- effective against central and peripheral causes of emesis as works on last step of vomiting reflex in CNS
- NK1 Receptor antagonist in Nucleus Tractus Solitarius

2

Metoclopramide

- Antiemetic
- D2 and 5HT3 antagonist [CRTZ and periphery], and peripheral procholinergic effects
- use in central/peripherally induced vomiting, chemotherapy, gastroesophageal reflux, decreased gastric emptying cases
- more potent in dogs dueto D2 activity

3

Phenothiazines

- Amtiemetic
- a1 and a2 Ant, D2 Ant, H1 and H2 Ant, Muscarinic Cholinergic Ant
- acts on CRTZ, vomiting centre, vestibular system and periphery
> not vet registered so few indications

4

Diphenhydrinate (Dramamine)

Anthistamines: Antiemetic
- act on CRTZ in motion sickness in the DOG only
- off label use in UK

5

Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)

Anthistamines:
- H1 and H2 in CRTZ
- Antiallergy

6

Dolasetron (Anzemet)

- 5HT3 antagonist (CRTZ and periphery)
- usually for cytotoxic drug induced emesis
- much more effective antiemetic than metoclopramide
- expensive

7

Ondansetron (Zofran)`

- 5HT3 antagonist (CRTZ and periphery)
- usually for cytotoxic drug induced emesis
- much more effective antiemetic than metoclopramide
- expensive

8

Atropine

Anticholinergic
-Motion sickness (M1 Ant in vestibular apparatus) BUT M2 effects cause severe side effects - delayed gastric emptying, ileus)

9

Butylscopolamine (Hyoscine)

Anticholinergic
-Motion sickness (M1 Ant in vestibular apparatus) BUT M2 effects cause severe side effects - delayed gastric emptying, ileus)

10

Propantheline

Anticholinergic
-Motion sickness (M1 Ant in vestibular apparatus) BUT M2 effects cause severe side effects - delayed gastric emptying, ileus)

11

Isopropamide

Anticholinergic
-Motion sickness (M1 Ant in vestibular apparatus) BUT M2 effects cause severe side effects - delayed gastric emptying, ileus)

12

Nonsystemic antacids

Anti-ulcer
- inexpensive
- oral administration different in V+ patient
- frequent administration ~4hrs = low owner compliance
- treat but DO NOT PREVENT

13

Cimetidine (Zitac)

- H2 R antagonists
- Anti-ulcer
- effective for gastric ulceration caused by NSAIDs and uraemia (amongst others)
- vet registered
- differ to other H2 R ants in potency, but = effective

14

Sucralfate

Anti-ulcer

15

Misoprostol (Cytotec)

Anti-ulcer
- Synthetic PGE2
- Management/prevention of NSAID tox
- Causes abortion in humans (morning after pill)

16

Omeprazole (Losec)

Anti-ulcer

17

Ranitidine (Zantac)

- H2 R antagonists
- Anti-ulcer
- effective for gastric ulceration caused by NSAIDs and uraemia (amongst others)
- differ to other H2 R ants in potency, but = effective
- prokinetic

18

Famotidine (Pepcid)

- H2 R antagonists
- Anti-ulcer
- effective for gastric ulceration caused by NSAIDs and uraemia (amongst others)
- differ to other H2 R ants in potency, but = effective

19

Apomorphine

- NOT morphine!
-D2 Ag
- Potent emetic in the dog

20

Xylazine

- A2 Ag
- Sedative
- Potent emetic in cats

21

Prochlorperazine

- A2 blocker
- Potent antiemetic in cats

22

Kaolin

- Absorbant/prtectant for diarrhoea?

23

Bismuth salicylate

- Absorbant/protectant for diarrhoea
- Avoid in cats

24

FLunixin meglumine

NSAID analgesic and antipyrexic

25

Moxidectin

Wormer
- effective against cyathostomin larvae but causes D+ in its own right
± corticosteroids?

26

Fenbendazole

WOrmer
- 10mg/kg PO SID 5 days
- effective against cyathostomin larvae but causes D+ in its own right
± corticosteroids

27

Lactulose

Laxative

28

Cyclosporine

Immunosupressant

29

Ketoconazole

Prolongs action of cyclosporine

30

Methodone

Opioid

31

Morphine

Opioid

32

Fentanyl

Opioid

33

Meloxicam

NSAID

34

Carprofen

NSAID

35

Buprenorphine

Partial opioid agonist

36

Toceranib (Palladia)

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor
- Tx of canine MCT

37

Masitinib (Masivet)

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor
- Tx of canine MCT

38

Furosemide (Lasix, Diuride)

- Diuretic for preload reduction in CHF
- blocks Na absorption ascending LOH
- Oral, IV, SC, CRI
> risk: electrolyte disturbance, hypovolaemia, azotaemia

39

Spironolactone (Prilactone)

- Diuretic indicated as 2* linediuretic - aldosterone blockade beneficial in neurohormonal blockade
- blocks Aldosterone receptors
- oral
> risk: hyperkalaemia

40

Torasemide

- loop diuretc like furosemide for dogs refrctory to furosemide!
- oral
> risks: electrolyte disturbnace, hypovolaemia, azotaemia (= furosemide)

41

Thiazides

- diuretics
- block NA absorption in DCT
- oral
- 2*/3* line diuretic in end stage heart failure
> risks: electrolyte distturbance, hypovolaemia, azotaemia

42

Glyceryl Trinitrate (Percutol) and Nitroprusside

- venodilators for emergency management of acute heart failure
- endogenous NO (relax smooth mm.)
- GT percutaneous administration
- Nitroprusside CRI only
> risks hypotension and cyanide toxicity with nitroprusside

43

ACE inhibitors (Fortekor, Benazecare, Enaguard[enalapril], Vasotop)

- arteriodilators/balanced vasodilators for many diseases in dogs and cats
- block AT2 prduction
- oral administration
> risks: hypotension, renal underperfusion

44

Pimobendan (Vetmedin)

- Phosphodiesterase inhibitors and calcium sensitiser
- oral
- preclinical DCM
- heart failure 2* to DCM or DMVD
> risk: effects on heart rate and rhythm

45

Amlodipine (Istin)

- Calcium channel antagonist
- oral
- antihypertensive
> risk: hypotension

46

Hydralazine

- Rarely used now
- oral
- 2*/3* line vasodilator
> Risk: hypotension

47

Digoxin (Lanoxine)

- blocks Na/K ATPase
- ^ intracellular calcium
- ^ vagal tone
- inotrope for advanced heart failure, supreventricular arrhythmias eg. atrial fibrillation
- oral and IV (rare)
> Risks: Narrow therapeutic index, pro-arrythmic, GIT side effects

48

Dobutamine

- short term salvage
- inotrope for acute heart failure management
- b- agonist
- CRI only
> Risks: ^ HR, pro-arrythmia

49

Diltiazem

- Ca channel antagonist
- oral
- luisitrope or negative chronotrope to enhance diastolic function
- HCM in cats (ACEI now more commonly used)
- slowing atrial fibrillation
- few side effects

50

B-blockers (Atenalol, propranolol etc)

- luisitrope or negative chronotrope to enhance diastolic function
- oral
- HCM or HOCM in cats
> risks: bradycardia and induction of heart failure

51

Quinidine

- class 1A anti arrhythmic
- oral or injectable
- conversion of atrial fibrillation in horses
> risks: GI side effects, tachycardia

52

Lignocaine

- Class 1B anti arrythmic
- IV injection
- ventricular arrythmias
> risks: GI and neuro side effects

53

Mexilitine

- Class 1B anti-arrythmic
- oral
- chronic management of ventricular arrythmias
> risks: GI and neuro side effects

54

Sotalol

- Class III anti-arrythmic with b-blocker effect
- oral
- chronic tx some ventricular arrythmias
> risk: proarrythic

55

Verapamil

- ca channel agonist
- antiarrythmic
- IV and oral
-tx supraventricular tachycardias
> risk: bradycardia

56

Aspirin

- anti thrombotic
- preventative for cats at risk of aortic thromboembolism
- inhibits formation of thromboxane in platelets to stop aggregation
- oral
> risk: GI ulceration -> vomiting, haematemesis, interaction with ACEI -> renal compromise

57

Clopidogrel

- anti thrombotic
- irreversible antagonist of platelet receptor
- inhibits 1* and 2* platelet aggregation
- oral
- some evidence better than aspirin
- prevention of aortic thromboembolism in at risk cats
> risks: GI signs