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Flashcards in Triage And Major Body System Assessment Deck (29):
0

Which order should systems be examined in for an emergency exam?

CV, resp, neuro
Then..
Abdo palpation and body temp

1

Should stabilisation measures be implemented during or after the initial assessment?

During

2

What 5 qualities/perfusion parameters should be evaluated during triage?

Heart rate
Pulse quality
Mucous membrane colour
Capillary refill time
Cardiac auscultation findings

3

What are the common conditions that affect clinical heamodynamic parameters?

Hypovoleamia
Sepsis/inflammatory response syndrome
Anaemia
Abnormal cardiac function

5

What two dimensions of the pulse profile can be measured/estimated and how may this change in a pathological situation?

Height and width
In Hypovoleamia, pulse becomes taller and narrower (bounding/hypodynamic/blippy/tall and narrow) due to vasoconstriction -> less elasticity
As hypovoleamia becomes more extreme, oulse remains narrow and decreases in height

6

What does stertor refer to?

Respiratory noises originating rostral to the larynx in the nasal area

7

What does stridor refer to?

Respiratory noises orginiating from the larynx

8

What does a heart rate above 220 in dogs indicate usually?

Cardiac arrhythmia

9

Define shock

Decreased O2 delivery to tissues

10

When may v pink mucous membranes be seen?

Distributive shock = septic shock due to pyometra/septic peritonitis etc. causing vasodilation

11

Why may hyperthermia occour with respiratory problems?

Panting impairment

12

In what species is stress with concurrent dyspnoea very serious potentially fatal?

Cats

13

How may dyspnoea be treated?

Oxygen cage/mask 100% O2 never causes harm

14

How may parenchymal disease be noted on radiographs and auscultation?

White (fluid) in alvioli where should be black lung fields
Harsh crackly lung sounds

15

How may pleural space disease be noted on radiographs and auscultation?

Diffuse white clouding over lower half of lungs
Dull lung and heart sounds

16

What does initial evaluation of the respiratory system comprise of?

Respiratory rate, effort and respiratory auscultation

17

Which postural changes denote dyspnoea?

Neck stretched, open mouth breathing - esp. serious in cats
Dogs stand with elbows abducted
Cats sit in sternal recumbency
Constantly changing body position worse indicator in cats than dogs
Lateral recumbency worse sign in cats than dogs (often impending death)

18

What breathing pattern is associated with dynamic upper airway problems?

Prolonged inspiratory phase with short expiratory phase.

19

How does asthma present?

Longer expiratory phase and increased effort on expiration

20

Where are lung sounds normally more loud and "coarse"?

Cranioventral lung fields

21

Where are lung sounds muffled in the normal healthy animal?

Left cranial field - "cardiac dullness"

22

What is the most liekly reason for an animal to not return to normal following seizure?

Hypoglyceamia

23

What is neuro exam carried out in relation to for an emergency examination?

Whether it is appropriate for the level of respiratory/CV compromise

24

When is a gait abnormality most liekly to be associated with neuro problems?

When more than one limb is affected
Hemi - half the body
Para - pair of limbs
Quadia - All 4 limbs

25

Wht is the difference between paresis and plegia?

Paresis = weakness
Plegia = complete loss of function

26

What temperature raises concern?

>40 bad, >42 life threatening

27

What is the likely cause of hypothermia?

Poor perfusion

28

What is the minimal diagnositc database carried out for emergency patients?

PCV, total protein, blood glucose

29

What is the single most important variable in improving outcome?

Perfusion