How do ACE inhibitors work?
They block the conversion of angiotensin 1 to angiotension 2 by stopping the ACE in the ungs which stops the renin-agiotnsin-aldosterone system and preventing vasoconstriction.
How do angiotensin receptor blockers work?
They bind to angiotensin receptors to prevent vasoconstriction and the release of aldosterone
How do calcium channel antagnist work?
They prevent the moveent of calcium into the cardiac and smooth muscle cells and interfere with the muscles ability to contract.
How do beta-blockers work?
They decrease the releas of renin to prevent vasoconstriction and cardiac contration and increase blood flow to the kidneys
How do apha-blockers work?
They inhibit post-synaptic alpha-adrenergic receptors which block the action of NaCI and adrenaline. This decreases sympathetic tone and causes vasodilation
How do thiazide-like diuretics work?
They increase the excretion of sodium and water from the kidneys which affects blood volume and lowers blood pressure
How do vasodilators work?
These are for emergenices and cause direct vasodilation
What are example of ACE inhibitors?
What are example of angiotensin receptor blockers?
What are examples of calcium channel blockers?
What are examples of Beta-blockers?
What are examples of Alpha-blockers?
What are examples of thiazide-like diuretics?
What are examples of vasodilators?
What are the side effects of ACE inhibitors?
- low bp
What are the side effects of Angiotensin Receptors Blockers?
- nasal congestion
- leg pain
- back pain
What are the side effeccts of calcium channel antagonist?
- low bp
What are the side effects of beta-blockers?
- cold hands
- upset stomach
- impaired concentration
- aggreation of asthma
What are the side effects of alpha-blockers?
- sudden drop in blood pressure when sitting or standing up
- leep disturbance
- itchy skin
- problems with erections
Side effects of thiazide-like diuretics?
- reduced insulin release
- increased plasma lipid and urate - gout
- dizziness and lightheadedness
- blurred vision
- loss of appetite
- stomach upset
What are side effects of vasodilators?
- chest pain
- rapid heartbeat (tachycardia)
- heart palpitations
- fluid retention - edema
Describe the mechanism of action of diltiazem?
Blocks voltage-operated calcium channels in cardiac muscle
Oedema (swollen ankles) is a common side effect of which of the following classes of anti-hypertensive drug?
Calcium channel blockers
How do angiotension receptor blockers work?
They bind to angiotensin receptors to preven vasoconstriction and the release of aldosterone
Losartan if often preferred to enalapril in the treament of hypertension because it
does not cause a dry cough