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Flashcards in EENT Deck (146)
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1

2 functions of ear

hearing

equilibrium

2

3 anatomic area of the ear

external

middle

inner

3

auricle/pinna + function

cartilage and skin

concentrate sound waves and conduct to external auditory canal

4

what is cerumen

wax from sebaceous gland

traps foreign bodies and lower bacteria (acidic pH)

5

what is the middle ear filled with and how does it communicate with nasopharynx

air

eustachian tube

6

mucous membrane of middle ear continuous with pharynx and mastoid cells--predisposition to...

otitis media (infected middle ear)

mastoiditis (infection of mastoid cells)

7

what are ossicles, where are they located

3 small articulated bones across middle ear cavity

8

which ossicle attaches to tympanic membrane/oval window

tympanic-malleus

oval window-stapes

9

what fluid is in the bony labyrinth and what are the 3 divisions of the bony labyrinth

watery perilymph

vestibule, semicircular canals, cochlea

10

organ of corti

neural end organ of hearing

hair and vibration to electrochemical impulses

11

what nerve is at risk from swelling and injury to temporal bone (trauma or surgical intervention)

facial, 7

12

what is a myringotomy and why is it done

incision into pars tensa of eardrum

relieve fluid pressure or drain pus

13

what instrument is used to insert a myringotomy tube

alligator forceps

14

what procedure is done to repair the tympanic membrane

tympanoplasty

15

what tissue is harvested to provide graft material to repair the tympanic membrane?

temporalis fascia

16

what is a mastoidectomy and the 3 types

removal of diseased bone from mastoid process and space

simple: air cells only

modified radical: air cells and maybe external auditory canal wall

radical: air cells, eardrum, malleus, incus, muscle, lining

17

cholesteatoma

accumulation of squamous epithelium

cystlike mass in middle ear/mastoid process

18

what is stapedectomy and what is it done for? how is hearing restored?

removal of entire stapes for otosclerosis

graft on oval window

prosthesis on incus

19

what is otosclerosis

formation of abnormal bone around stapes footplate-immobilization

20

meniere's disease

overaccumulation of endolymph

vertigo, tinnitus, hearing loss

21

what procedure is done to fix meniere's disease

vestibular neurectomy

labyrinthectomy

22

why is facial nerve decompression done?

bell's palsy

23

what problems do people with facial nerve paralysis experience?

can't tear, can't close eye, drooping mouth

24

what is acoustic neruoma

benign schwann cell tumor

vestibular portion of 8th cranial nerve

25

what is a cochlear implant? when are they used

device in mastoid of cochlea to acoustic nerve

patients with hearing loss or learned speech

26

where is a cochlear device and receiver placed?

device in cochlea

receiver in mastoid

27

the nose is associated with the ears by means of what structure

Eustachian tube

28

4 paranasal sinuses associated with nasal cavity

frontal

maxillary

ethmoid

sphenoid

29

2 local anesthetics for nasal cases

cocaine

lido w/ epi

30

what is on separate prep table for surgeon to prep and inject the nose before draping

vasoconstrictor solution, cocaine in patties, bayonet forceps, curved scissor, ky

31

what is septoplasty, submucous resecton SMR

straigtening cartilagenous or osseous part of septum

32

after SMR what is the nose packed with

nasal splint of plastic/silastic to prevent adhesions/maintain septum

antibiotic impregnated gauze

33

what is a moustache dressing

2x2 gauze folded and placed beneath nose bridge

34

instrument used to repair a nasal fracture using external manipulation

Boies elevator

35

what is an epistaxis

nosebleed

36

what can a scrub do to maintain periorbital cavities in FESS

place all tissue into normal saline or lactated ringer's solution

if floats then brain tissue

37

where is the incision for a frontal sinus trephination

below the eyebrow

38

part of mouth outside teeth

buccal cavity

39

part of mouth inside teeth

lingual cavity

40

fingerlike moveable projection from soft palate

uvula

41

what is the pharynx in between and what is its purpose

posterior nose to esophagus and larynx

digestive and respiratory systems

42

3 sets of tonsils

palatine

adenoid

lingual

43

why is the location of the larynx strategic

protects airway during swallowing and breathing

44

how many cartilage rings form the larynx

9

45

thyroid cartilage is also called

adam's apple

46

which cartilage is a complete ring vs. c-shaped of trachea

cricoid

47

the epiglottis does what

protects larynx during swallowing

48

what is the glottis

region of larynx at vocal cords

triangular space between vocal cords

49

what branch of the vagus nerve motivates the pharynx and larynx

recurrent

50

3 categories of salivary gland disorders

inflammatory

obstructive

neoplastic

51

most issues of salivary glands come from which gland

parotid

52

where does the submandibular gland lie and what is its duct called

above and below posterior mandible

wharton's duct

53

where is the parotid gland located

below zygomatic arch in front of mastoid process

54

what nerve divides parotid into superficial and deep portions and risks injury during parotid gland surgery

facial, 7

55

2 things used to make a head drape

half-sheet and 2 towels

56

when using endoscopic equipment why should scopes be checked

hurt patient, harder to clean, intrusion into instrument

57

what is triple endoscopy

laryngoscopy

bronchoscopy

esophagoscopy

58

incision for parotidectomy

below angle of mandible to above the ear

59

what is tracheostomy

opening into trachea and inserting a cannula below cricoid

60

what is done to trach tube before insertion

test for air leaks by inflating and deflating balloon

61

what is a uvulopalatopharyngoplasty UPPP done for

obstructive sleep apnea

62

why is supraglottic laryngectomy performed? can the patient speak afterwards?

tumor in epiglottis

yes, with a hoarser voice

63

how are postop total laryngectomy patients taught to speak

esophageal voice or artificial larynx

64

after total laryngectomy how does a patient breathe

through trachea

65

what is removed in radical neck dissection

tumor, soft tissue from inferior mandible to midline of neck, clavicle, trapezius muscle, and en bloc nodes

66

when sternoclediomastoid muscle is preserved what happens postop for patient?

Minimal defect and shoulder function loss

67

2 self-retaining retractors in T&A?

Jenning's

Davis

68

absorbable or nonabsorbable suture ligature?

absorbable

69

another name for type 1 tympanoplasty

myringoplasty

70

2 functions of nose

filter inspired air

smell

71

what sinus is Caldwell-Luc done on

maxillary

72

why are adenoidectomies not done after adolescence

they atrophy

73

position and anesthesia for tonsillectomy

supine

general

74

7 bones of orbit

maxilla, palatine, frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, zygomatic, lacrimal

75

function of lacrimal gland

produce and secrete tears onto anterior eye

76

tears go through what to nasal cavity

nasolacrimal duct

77

conjunctiva

thin transparent mucous membrane

palpebral-inside eyelids

bulbar-surface of globe

78

where upper and lower eyelids meet

canthus

79

6 extraocular extrinsic eye muscles

lateral, superior, inferior, medial rectus

superior, inferior oblique

80

3 layers of eyeball

corneoscleral

uvea

sensory retina

81

outer layer of eyeball

sclera - tough white fibrous

cornea- transparent

82

3 structures of middle layer in eyeball

iris-colored, open to let light in (pupil)

ciliary body-smooth muscle, lens accomodation

choroid-vascular nutrients to retina

83

sensory retina

converts impulses to electrical signals on optic nerve

84

nerve fibers on inner layer converge to form what...?

orbital septum

85

optic disc/anatomic blind spot

optic nerve exits on retina

86

macula lutea

area of highest sensitivity for detail

center of retina

87

refractive apparatus of eye

cornea

aqueous humor

iris

vitreous body

88

2 transcellular eyeball fluids for shape

aqueous humor-anterior to lens in anterior chamber and posterior chamber

vitreous humor-behind lens to retina (posterior cavity)

89

where cornea joins sclera

limbus

90

lens of eye

behind iris, connected to ciliary body by zonules

91

optic nerve

2nd

92

3 cranial nerves for motor innervation of eye

3, oculomotor

4, trochlea

6, abducens

93

arterial supply to eyeball

ophthalmic artery

94

where are eyedrops placed

cornea/lower conjunctival sac

95

retrobulbar block

regional anesthesia-base of eyelids behind eyeball

block nerves and paralysis of extraocular muscles

96

peribulbar block

regional anesthesia-around soft tissue of globe/floor or roof of globe

97

cycloplegic drug

paralyzes ciliary muscles preventing lens accomodation

dilates pupil

98

miotic drug

constricts pupil

cholinergic

99

mydriatic drug

dilates pupil

100

Wydase (Hyaluronidase)

diffusing enzyme

prolongs effect and increases perfusion

101

irrigant in ophthalmic surgery

BSS

102

chalazion

benign tumor of eyelid/blocked meibomien gland

103

how to treat a chalazion

excision

104

instruments for treating chalazion

green chalazion clamp

105

entropion

inward turning of eyelid/lashes scrape cornea

bleopharoplasty of lower lid (involutional)

Wies procedure (cicatrical)

106

ectropion

eversion (outward turning) of eyelid exposing conjunctiva

lateral canthal sling

107

ptosis

dropping of upper lid

levator aponeurosis procedure

108

dacrocystorhinostomy DCR

construction of new tear drainage from lacrimal sac to nasal cavity

109

3 procedures for eyeball removal

enucleation: complete removal + muscles/optic nerve

evisceration: contents of eyeball only; sclera and muscles intact

exenteration: removal of entire eye and orbital contents

110

squint eye or cross eye

strabismus

111

rectus resection to correct strabismus

strengthen extraocular eye muscles by shortening the muscle

muscle reattached to original site

section of muscle removed

112

recession procedure for strabismus

weaken extraocular eye muscles by changing attachment site of muscle

muscle attached further back from front of eye

113

pterygium and treatment

fleshy triangular encroachment of conjunctiva on cornea

excision

114

keratoplasty

corneal transplant from another human eye

115

radical keratotomy

small cuts in peripheral cornea to flatten, and reshape, fixing nearsightedness (myopia)

116

cataract

opacification of lens

117

intracapsular cataract extraction ICCE

remove lens within capsule w/cryoprobe and alpha-chemotrypsin

118

extracapsular cataract extraction ECCE

anterior capsule ruptured, remove cataract in pieces

119

ECCE structure left

posterior capsule

120

most common visual correction after lens removed

IOL

PCL if ECCE

ACL if ICCE

121

what is an intraocular lens made of

silicone or acrylic resin

122

what IOL is implanted after ECCE

posterior chamber lens

123

what IOL is implanted after ICCE

anterior chamber lens

124

glaucoma

increased IOP caused by excessive aqueous humor

125

closed/narrow angle glaucoma surgery

laser iridiotomy or iridectomy to widen angle

126

open/wide angle glaucoma surgery

laser trabeculoplasty

127

normal IOP

10-22mmHg

128

iridectomy

remove section of iris

reestablish communication between ant + pos chambers to fix mechanical obstruction

129

iridotomy

cut small opening into iris

increase drainage of aqueous humor from posterior --> anterior chamber

130

trabeculectomy

artificial fistula between anterior chamber and subconjunctival space

bypass obstruction of drainage

131

what are glaucoma drainage devices?

implanted in posterior subconjunctival space when filtering procedures are unsuccessful

132

retinal detachment

tear allows vitreous humor to flow behind retina

separates retina from choroid

133

scleral bulking

return retina to normal position

134

pneumatic retinopexy

intraocular injection of air bubble pressurizes vs. retinal breaks

135

fluid retinopexy/tamponade

inject silicone oil into vitreous in pos. chamber to compress retina against choroid.

stays in for many months

136

vitrectomy

removal or some or all vitreous humor

137

why perform vitrectomy

improve vision

138

indications for anterior vitrectomy

vitreous loss in cataract surgery

opacity in anterior segment

complication of vitreous in anterior

139

indications for posterior vitrectomy

opacity

diabetic eye disease

intraocular trauma

retinal detachment

foreign body

proliferative vitrecordiopathy

140

most common incisional approaches of ear

periauricular

endaural

transcanal

141

iris

colored portion controls size of pupil allowing light in to retina

142

condition of aging that progressively lessens accomodative power of eye - bifocals

presbyopia

143

blood supply to tonsils

external carotid

144

Types of cycloplegic drugs

TropicamidE

Atropine

Scopolamine hydrobromide

145

Mydriatic drugs

Phenylephrine


146

Miotic drugs

Carbachol

Acetylcholine chloride

Pilocarpine hydrochloride