Cardiac, Thoracic, and Vascular Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cardiac, Thoracic, and Vascular Deck (256)
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1

3 arteries that branch from aortic arch?

brachiocephalic

left common carotid

left subclavian

2

4 arteries (2 pairs) that supply blood to the Circle of Willis

left and right common carotids

left and right internal carotids

3

acute arterial disease?

occlusion, embolitic disease, plaque rupture, thrombosis

4

2 options to treat acute arterial occlusion

embolectomy

thrombolytic medication (heparin)

5

six "P's" that indicate acute arterial occlusion

pain

pallor

pulselessness

paresthesia

paralysis

poikilothermia

6

chronic arterial disease?

calcium and cholesterol within the wall of an artery

7

define arteriosclerosis

aging process

hardening/thickening of arteries

too much pressure

8

define atherosclerosis

pathologic process (type of arteriosclerosis)

buildup of fats, cholesterol, plaque

calcification

9

athero vs. aterio sclerosis

arterio - aging, high BP, hardening

athero - pathologic, plaque

10

define atheroma

deposit of plaque in an artery

11

define aneurysm

local abnormal dilation of a blood vessel

structural weakening of the intima

12

pseudoaneurysm

false

disruption of all vessel layers

arterial blood collects in perivascular tissue

13

dissecting aneurysm

tear allowing blood to dissect between vessel layers

14

fusiform aneurysm

spindle shaped

complete circumferential involvement of artery

15

saccular aneurysm

sac with a narrow neck on side of artery

16

define intermittent claudication

muscle cramping during exercise

17

intermittent claudication indicates?

vascular disease in aortoiliac vessels and distal arteries

lower extremity PAD

not enough O2 distal to obstruction

18

define rest pain

pain in the foot at rest

no O2

19

rest pain indicates?

critical ischemia

ulcers

gangrene

20

CVA

cerebrovascular accident

21

define stroke/CVA

infarction of brain tissue due to lack of blood

22

TIA

transient ischemic attack

23

define transient ischemic attack

temporary localized reduction of blood floow (O2) to brain

less than 24 hrs

24

causes of TIA

atheromatous debris

thromboembolism from a carotid

25

fix TIA?

carotid endarterectomy

26

acute venous disease (DVT)

clot in deep venous system (lower extremity)

endothelial injury

venostasis

hyper coagulability

27

DVT symptoms

limb swelling

pain

skin color change

28

danger of DVT

emboli to right ventricle then lungs (fatal)

29

2 noninvasive imaging procedures to diagnose

MRI

doppler/ultrasound

30

angiography

injection of dye into venous and arterial systems

diagnose AV malformation, aneurysm, tumors, stenosis, vascular accidents