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Flashcards in Orthopedics Deck (113)
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1

describe total knee arthroplasty

replace worn surfaces of knee joint

2

indications for total knee arthroplasty

rheumatic/traumatic arthritis

varus/valgus deformity (destroy medial/lateral)

pain, instability

3

position for total knee replacement

supine w/ footrest for flexed leg

4

2 principle methods of implant fixation for joint arthroplasty

cemented

noncemented

5

ideal candidate for cemented or uncemented/press fit

noncemented: younger active people. Biofixation

Cemented: old people

6

what is bone cement

poly methyl methacrylate monomer

IM of cemented arthroplasty prosthesis

adheres to metal/polyethylene but not bone

7

how is PMMA used to ensure fixation

fills cavity and interstices of bone for mechanical bond

8

adverse reactions to PMMA

transitory hypotension

cardiac arrest

CVA, PE

hypersensitivity

9

osteoarthritis

noninflammatory progressive degenerative joint disease-hypertrophic hyaline/subchondral bone

wear and tear after 50

cause of most joint replacements

10

rheumatoid arthritis

autoimmune disease-system attacks synovium and articular surfaces-inflammation

ages 25-50

11

osteomalacia

softening of bones due to lack of vitamin D

inadequate mineralization

12

osteoporosis

excessive loss of calcified matrix-decreased bone mass

metabolic disorder producing porous, brittle, easily fractured bones

13

continuous passive motion

early postop passive ROM

stimulates healing in articular tissue (tendon, cartilage, ligament)

doesn't interfere with incisional healing over joint

14

benefits of CPM

inhibit adhesions

decrease joint stiffness, swelling, pain

early functional ROM

decreased effects of immobilization

15

osteomyelitis

bone/marrow infection from Staph A.

hard to treat expensive

16

diarthrotic joint

freely moveable/synovial

skull

17

amphiarthrotic joint

slightly moveable-connected by cartilage

symphysis pubis, intervetrebral joints

18

avulsion fracture

ligaments are intact on separated bone fragments

19

luxation

complete dislocation of one surface to another

20

subluxation

partial dislocation (ligament instability)

21

monteggia fracture

proximal ulnar fracture w/ dislocation of radial head

blow to ulna or fall w/ arm hyperextended

not treated with OR in kids

22

Colles' fracture

distal radius fracture w/ posterior displacement of distal radial fragment

reduce, close, immobilize

fall on outstretched hand

23

compound fracture

bone through skin-extensive tissue damage

significant anatomical displacement

ORIF

24

comminuted fracture

more than 2 pieces

25

spiral/oblique fracture

bone twisted apart

oblique-shorter than spiral

26

pathologic fracture

due to weakened state-osteoporosis

27

greenstick fracture

bending partially ossiated bone

convex side breaks, concave bends and heals

incomplete fracture

28

stress fracture

incomplete fracture from overuse/high impact sports

small crack

29

5 stages of bone healing

hematoma

fibroblasts network formation

osteoblasts invade

calcium callus

remodeling

30

malunion

fracture heals out of anatomical position

impaired function/significant angulation of extemity