Flashcards in Electrolytes (MR) Deck (65):
What is an electrolyte?
Substance that ionizes when dissolved in an ionizing solvent like water.
What are the most common types of E-lytes? Less common?
Salts, Acids & Bases Gases (HCl), Synthetic Polymers- Polystyrene (Charged Functional Group), Biologic Polymers - DNA & RNA
How do E-lytes exist in the body?
What are the most important E-lytes in the body?
Na+ Cl- K+ Ca2+ Mg2+ PO4- HCO3-
How are E-lytes acquired?
Eat it Iatrogenic - Fluids & Meds Tissue Breakdown False Elevations on Biochem
What is a concern with feeding alfalfa?
What is very important to give a ruminant?
What is a concern with Buffered Penecillin G? When is this a concern?
It has K+ too! Neonates
What is an example of a false elevation on Biochem panel?
Blood sample left in car and hemolysis occurs - False ↑ K+ !
With tissue breakdown, what elevations can be seen?
Ca2+ , K+ , Mg2+
How does the body get rid of its electrolytes?
Kidneys GI Tract Sweat Saliva Milk Respiratory System
What E-lytes are most commonly lost with Dxa?
Na+ (Cl- ), HCO3- , K+
Which E-lytes are most commonly lost in reflux?
Which E-lytes are most commonly lost in saliva?
HCO3- & K+
How much can a horse sweat out in an hour?
What is the main E-lyte in hose sweat? How much compared to plasma?
What acid/base situation can sweating put a horse into?
Hypochloremic Alkalosis or Contraction Alkalosis
What is "Thumps"? What is the doctor name for it? Which E-lyte imbalance is most responsible?
The diaphragm may contract synchronously with the heart to produce loud thumping noises on auscultation and usually visible contraction in the flank area. Due to stimulation of the phrenic nerve by atrial depolarization and occurs primarily when there is a marked electrolyte or acid-base imbalance, particularly with hypocalcemia. It is most common in horses and dogs and occurs frequently in eclampsia. It is seen most commonly in dogs in association with electrolyte disturbances induced by GI disease. Synchronous Diaphragmatic Flutter HYPOcalcemia
Who is a good salivator?
Dzs that inhibit swallowing in cows?
Rabies Botulism Tetanus
What are the main E-lytes lost in milk?
K+ Ca2+ NaCl Mg2+
If diet is short on E-lytes what will balance does it affect?
DCAB Dietary Cation Anion Balance
How are E-lytes lost from respiratory system?
Who loses a lot of E-lytes from respiratory system? How? Why?
Sheep Panting Don't Sweat
What acid/base balance does loss of E-lyte through respiratory system create?
Respiratory Alkalosis ↑ Breathing
What blood parameter is dependent acid/base balance?
Does the respiratory system ever over compensate for metabolic acidosis/alkalosis on its own?
No, but can fully compensate
What is/are the 1º ECF Cation(s)? Others?
Na+ K+ , Ca2+ , Mg2+
What is/are the 1º ECF Anion(s)? Others?
Cl- & HCO3 SO42-, HPO42-
What is/are the 1º ICF Cation(s)? Others?
K+ Mg2+ , Na+ , Ca2+
What is/are the 1º ICF Anion(s)? Others?
HPO42- & Protein SO42-, HCO3- , Cl-
Cations in ECF & ICF should be?
Where are E-lytes?
Cofactors Enzymes Transport Proteins Structural Proteins EVERY PHYSIOLOGIC FUNCTION IN THE BODY!
Which cells/functions do E-lytes affect the most?
Neural Muscle Bone Coagulation Tissue Necrosis
Which Neural functions do E-lytes affect?
Action Potentials Synapse Function
Which E-lytes have the greatest effect on Synapse Function?
Ca2+ (most) Na+ , Mg2+
Which e-lytes have the greatest affect on Action Potentials?
Which E-lytes affect Smooth Muscle?
Extracellular Ca2+ & Mg2+
Which E-lytes affect Skeletal Muscle?
Ca2+ & Mg2+
Which E-lytes affect Cardiac Muscle?
Intracellular Ca2+ & Mg2+
What muscle functions are depend on e-lyte balance?
Action Potential Motor End Plate Function Actin & Myosin Interaction
What e-lytes does bone have a lot of? In the form of? Formula?
Ca2+ P Hydroxyapatite [Ca5(PO4)3(OH)]
Which e-lytes affect Coagulation?
Ca2+ (most) Mg2+ Sulphur
Which e-lyte comes into play the most regarding tissue necrosis?
How does the body control e-lyte balance?
Detect Regulate Store/Sequestration
What does the kidney detect?
Na+ & H2O Balance
What does the Respiratory Center Detect?
What does the parathyroid detect?
Ca2+ (much better)
What are the two "waters" that the body can lose?
Free Water - leave e-lytes behind Water/E-lyte Solution - takes e-lytes with it
How are Na= & water maintained?
How does hypernatremia occur according to water loss? What will this trigger
Free water loss Thirst response
Which animal can seek the nutrients that it needs?
At the cellular level how is acidosis dealt with? Alkalosis?
H+ is taken into cells K+ and Mg2+ kicked out Opposite
Differentials for hyperkalemia?
HYPP K+ intake (e-lyte solution from trainer) Myotonic Condition Pseudohyperkalemia (hemolysis, age) Transcellular Shift ↓ Renal Excretion Addisons
What is "milk fever"?
What causes hypocalcemia?
Dietary Renal Failure Endocrine abnormalities
What fluid loss causes hypomagnesemia in ruminants? Horses?
Does renal failure usually lead to hypocalcemia or hypercalcemia? especially in who? how?
HYPER Horses Urine - Ca2+/HCO3- crystals in urine
What is the regulation mechanism for Mg2+ ?
Interstitial absorption 7 Renal Secretion No Hormonal Control
Hypocalcemia & Hypophosphatemia differentials?
2º Hyperparathyroidism due to nutrition or chronic renal failure (dogs) Hypercalcitosis Chronic Renal Failure Hypoalbuminemia
Which e-lyte are Atrial stand still and tented T-waves on ECG associated with?
Especially in cattle what are dxa and bradycardia associate with?
TQ!!! What is the max dose of K+ ?
How should you supplement K+ ?