Electrolytes (MR) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Electrolytes (MR) Deck (65):
1

What is an electrolyte?

Substance that ionizes when dissolved in an ionizing solvent like water.

2

What are the most common types of E-lytes? Less common?

Salts, Acids & Bases Gases (HCl), Synthetic Polymers- Polystyrene (Charged Functional Group), Biologic Polymers - DNA & RNA

3

How do E-lytes exist in the body?

Solution

4

What are the most important E-lytes in the body?

Na+ Cl- K+ Ca2+ Mg2+ PO4- HCO3-

5

How are E-lytes acquired?

Eat it Iatrogenic - Fluids & Meds Tissue Breakdown False Elevations on Biochem

6

What is a concern with feeding alfalfa?

High Ca2+

7

What is very important to give a ruminant?

Salt Block

8

What is a concern with Buffered Penecillin G? When is this a concern?

It has K+ too! Neonates

9

What is an example of a false elevation on Biochem panel?

Blood sample left in car and hemolysis occurs - False ↑ K+ !

10

With tissue breakdown, what elevations can be seen?

Ca2+ , K+ , Mg2+

11

How does the body get rid of its electrolytes?

Kidneys GI Tract Sweat Saliva Milk Respiratory System

12

What E-lytes are most commonly lost with Dxa?

Na+ (Cl- ), HCO3- , K+

13

Which E-lytes are most commonly lost in reflux?

Cl-

14

Which E-lytes are most commonly lost in saliva?

HCO3- & K+

15

How much can a horse sweat out in an hour?

100L!

16

What is the main E-lyte in hose sweat? How much compared to plasma?

Cl- Double

17

What acid/base situation can sweating put a horse into?

Hypochloremic Alkalosis or Contraction Alkalosis

18

What is "Thumps"? What is the doctor name for it? Which E-lyte imbalance is most responsible?

The diaphragm may contract synchronously with the heart to produce loud thumping noises on auscultation and usually visible contraction in the flank area. Due to stimulation of the phrenic nerve by atrial depolarization and occurs primarily when there is a marked electrolyte or acid-base imbalance, particularly with hypocalcemia. It is most common in horses and dogs and occurs frequently in eclampsia. It is seen most commonly in dogs in association with electrolyte disturbances induced by GI disease. Synchronous Diaphragmatic Flutter HYPOcalcemia

19

Who is a good salivator?

Cow

20

Dzs that inhibit swallowing in cows?

Rabies Botulism Tetanus

21

What are the main E-lytes lost in milk?

K+ Ca2+ NaCl Mg2+

22

If diet is short on E-lytes what will balance does it affect?

DCAB Dietary Cation Anion Balance

23

How are E-lytes lost from respiratory system?

CO2 Evaporation

24

Who loses a lot of E-lytes from respiratory system? How? Why?

Sheep Panting Don't Sweat

25

What acid/base balance does loss of E-lyte through respiratory system create?

Respiratory Alkalosis ↑ Breathing

26

What blood parameter is dependent acid/base balance?

Blood pH

27

Does the respiratory system ever over compensate for metabolic acidosis/alkalosis on its own?

No, but can fully compensate

28

What is/are the 1º ECF Cation(s)? Others?

Na+ K+ , Ca2+ , Mg2+

29

What is/are the 1º ECF Anion(s)? Others?

Cl- & HCO3 SO42-, HPO42-

30

What is/are the 1º ICF Cation(s)? Others?

K+ Mg2+ , Na+ , Ca2+

31

What is/are the 1º ICF Anion(s)? Others?

HPO42- & Protein SO42-, HCO3- , Cl-

32

Cations in ECF & ICF should be?

equal

33

Where are E-lytes?

Cofactors Enzymes Transport Proteins Structural Proteins EVERY PHYSIOLOGIC FUNCTION IN THE BODY!

34

Which cells/functions do E-lytes affect the most?

Neural Muscle Bone Coagulation Tissue Necrosis

35

Which Neural functions do E-lytes affect?

Action Potentials Synapse Function

36

Which E-lytes have the greatest effect on Synapse Function?

Ca2+ (most) Na+ , Mg2+

37

Which e-lytes have the greatest affect on Action Potentials?

Na+ K+

38

Which E-lytes affect Smooth Muscle?

Extracellular Ca2+ & Mg2+

39

Which E-lytes affect Skeletal Muscle?

Ca2+ & Mg2+

40

Which E-lytes affect Cardiac Muscle?

Intracellular Ca2+ & Mg2+

41

What muscle functions are depend on e-lyte balance?

Action Potential Motor End Plate Function Actin & Myosin Interaction

42

What e-lytes does bone have a lot of? In the form of? Formula?

Ca2+ P Hydroxyapatite [Ca5(PO4)3(OH)]

43

Which e-lytes affect Coagulation?

Ca2+ (most) Mg2+ Sulphur

44

Which e-lyte comes into play the most regarding tissue necrosis?

Ca2+

45

How does the body control e-lyte balance?

Detect Regulate Store/Sequestration

46

What does the kidney detect?

Na+ & H2O Balance

47

What does the Respiratory Center Detect?

Acid/Base Balance

48

What does the parathyroid detect?

Ca2+ (much better)

49

What are the two "waters" that the body can lose?

Free Water - leave e-lytes behind Water/E-lyte Solution - takes e-lytes with it

50

How are Na= & water maintained?

RAS system

51

How does hypernatremia occur according to water loss? What will this trigger

Free water loss Thirst response

52

Which animal can seek the nutrients that it needs?

Chicken

53

At the cellular level how is acidosis dealt with? Alkalosis?

H+ is taken into cells K+ and Mg2+ kicked out Opposite

54

Differentials for hyperkalemia?

HYPP K+ intake (e-lyte solution from trainer) Myotonic Condition Pseudohyperkalemia (hemolysis, age) Transcellular Shift ↓ Renal Excretion Addisons

55

What is "milk fever"?

Hypocalcemia, Hypomagnesemia

56

What causes hypocalcemia?

Dietary Renal Failure Endocrine abnormalities

57

What fluid loss causes hypomagnesemia in ruminants? Horses?

saliva sweat

58

Does renal failure usually lead to hypocalcemia or hypercalcemia? especially in who? how?

HYPER Horses Urine - Ca2+/HCO3- crystals in urine

59

What is the regulation mechanism for Mg2+ ?

Interstitial absorption 7 Renal Secretion No Hormonal Control

60

Hypocalcemia & Hypophosphatemia differentials?

2º Hyperparathyroidism due to nutrition or chronic renal failure (dogs) Hypercalcitosis Chronic Renal Failure Hypoalbuminemia

61

Which e-lyte are Atrial stand still and tented T-waves on ECG associated with?

Hyperkalemia

62

Especially in cattle what are dxa and bradycardia associate with?

Hyperkalemia

63

TQ!!! What is the max dose of K+ ?

.5 mEq/kg/hr

64

How should you supplement K+ ?

SLOWLY

65

When is rate of Na+ supplementation rate/balancing rate important? Why? Which cells especially?

Chronic Hyponatremia/Hypernatremia Change in osmolarity is too quick. Body needs time to repartition e-lytes. Brain Cells Cerebral Edema