Flashcards in Intro and Bloodwork (MR) Deck (128):
What is a Rule Out List?
List of Differentials
What is the 1º Rule Out?
What you think it is the most
How much kidney must be lost to show clinical signs?
How much kidney must be lost to be azotemia?
Azotemic and can concentrate urine, do they have kidney failure?
No, they are concentrating urine. Azotemia can be: Pre, Renal, Post
Are Clinical Signs diseases?
Most CX are what?
When does loss of function give you the dz?
Beyond reserve capacity of the system
Does inflammation require loss of function?
What is a problem list?
Every single problem an animal has
What are Rule Out lists designed for?
Every single problem has its own Rule Out List
DAMNITV: What does D stand for?
DAMNITV: What does A stand for?
DAMNITV: What does M stand for?
DAMNITV: What does N stand for?
DAMNITV: What does I stand for?
DAMNITV: What does T stand for?
DAMNITV: What does V stand for?
What does PARSIMONY mean?
Everything comes down to one thing
When should you collect baseline samples?
When pet is healthy
What is more important (regarding severity) for kidney function, azotemia or ability to concentrate?
Ability to concentrate, take a USG (UA)
TQ! What tests will you always want?
CBC, Chem, UA (at least USG)
What is polachyuria?
Small spots all over the place
Chronic Kidney Disease
Central Diabetes Insipidus
Portal Systemic Shunt
Nephrogenic Diabetes Inspipidus - exceedingly rare don't have receptors for ADH, puppies
Nephrogenic DI - inability of receptors to respond to ADH - most cases
When does epilepsy happen?
6 mo - 5 yrs
What do buff colored cocker spaniels get?
How many more times likely?
IMHA: This is your top differential.
8X more likely
When do we treat clinical signs?
When we know what is causing the clinical signs!
What does S.O.A.P. stand for?
Is CBC qualitative or quantitative?
What is ALWAYS done with a CBC?
TQ! 2 Primary Rule Outs for Regenerative anemia?
Why should you make sure tube is filled appropriately?
Anticoagulation Artifacts will change ratios of numbers
Immature cells are bigger or smaller?
Decreased PCV is?
Increased PCV is?
What is PCV?
% of Whole blood that is RBC
Primary Rule Outs for Non-regenerative anemia?
Renal Dz - Could be anywhere
Bone Marrow Dz
What comes with inflammation?
What do Cytokines do?
Turn on and turn off all kinds of cells including inflammatory cells and some of which live in the bone marrow
What is an increased PCV?
Types of Polycythemia?
What is Relative Polycythemia?
Total Solids is best measured how?
Acute phase proteins?
What are they turned on by?
Total Solid Elevations occur due to?
Total Solids Decreases are due to?
If something is low, what are the most possible reasons?
What are 2 smallest proteins?
Why would you go into DIC with a nephropathy?
Antithrombin III leaks out and then you cant clot.
PLE you tend to lose which proteins?
Albumin & Globulins
Leakier than nephrons
Which proteins are lost in PLN?
Elevations in both PCV and TS suggest?
Elevated TS with low/low-normal PCV suggest?
Dehydration masking more severe anemia.
PVC will tank once rehydrated!
What is the difference between a Hct and PCV?
Hct is calculated
PCV is measured
Hemoglobin does what?
Carries O2 in g/dL
How do you get PCV from Hgb?
Hgb X 3
Leukogram relative values are?
I promise I will never do what with a leukogram?
Read relative (%) values.
What is the very best leukogram machine?
Which machine is most inaccurate?
How is Leukogram taken manually?
TQ!!! What is a Stress leukogram?
What is Physiological Leukocytosis?
Neutrophilia & Lymphocytosis
Corticosteroid Leukogram think what animal?
What causes Extreme neutrophilic leukocytosis?
Hepatozoanosis (can be really high 154,000 neuts)
What are the levels of leukocytosis in a leukemia?
TQ! What will be on every DDX list ever!
Why mature neutrophilia in stress leukogram?
Body releases neutrophils (mature bc not infection)
If all neutrophils are young and numbers are decreased what is this?
Degenerative Left Shift
Why Lymphopenia in stress leukogram?
What causes Monocytosis?
Steroids (stress leukogram),
Why would there be an elevation in Mature Neutrophils?
Immune Mediated Dz
Stress - corticosteroids
Why would there be a decrease in Mature Neutrophils?
Bone Marrow Dz, (Dysfunction or Suppression)
What is a Regenerative Left Shift?
Is it a normal reaction?
What cells will you see?
Neutrophil response to inflammation and are adequately responding to demand.
There are mature and immature cells.
What is degenerative left shift?
Is it a normal reaction?
What cells are present?
Neutrophil production where release is not meeting the demand.
You will see bands but not mature/segmented neuts.
What are lymphocytes?
What are they markers for?
Which cells are lymphocytes?
Circulating immune system cells
B & T cells
What do B cells produce?
What do T cells produce/do?
Assist B cells
Can be cytotoxic/killer
What causes elevations in Lymphocytes?
ESPECIALLY Rickettsial infections!!!!!,
HYPOadrenocorticism - it's a balance thing - absence of steroids
What causes decreases in lymphocytes?
Steroids - suppress immune system cause margination
What are Monocytes in the blood?
What are they markers of?
Traveling to their designated site in tissue to become macrophages. Chronic inflammation
Who shows up first neuts or monos?
Neuts ya twit!
What type of cells are eosinophils and basophils?
What are eosinophils and basophils markers for?
Allergic and Parasitic Dzs
Mast cell neoplasia
Eosinopenia is caused by?
Steroids, Acute Inflammation
Bone Marrow Dz
Eosinophils and Mast cells share what?
Same Cytokines (IL5) turns them on!
Who gets eosinophilic dzs?
Cats & Horses
What is the stain for reticulocytes?
What are you staining?
New Methylene Blue
% retic based on what cell count?
Two types of Feline Retics?
Aggregate & Punctate
Which Feline Retics are newly released from marrow?
Aggregate (Lots of dots)
What are aggregate retics specific from?
Bone Marrow Response
What are Punctate Retics?
How long do they circulate?
Corrected Reticulocyte % tells you what?
If it is regenerative enough
If bone marrow is responding appropriately to the severity of the PCV.
What is the absolute retic count for dogs?
What is the absolute retic count for cats?
What % of corrected reticulocyte % (CRP) indicates regeneration in a dog?
What % of corrected reticulocyte % (CRP) indicates regeneration in a cat?
What is Retic Production Index?
CRP/lifespan of retics
What is MCHC for all species with discoid RBCs?
What is RDW?
Bimodal RDW signifies?
MCV: Macrocytic RBCs signify?
Regeneration or you're a poodle!
MCV: Microcytic RBCs signify?
PSS (Portal Systemic Shunt)
You're an Akita or Shibu Inu
MCHC measures what?
MCHC: What does HYPOchromia signify?
MCHC: What does HYPERchromia signify?
DOESN'T HAPPEN, if machine reads this think HEINZ BODIES look at your blood smear
What do congenital PSS animals tend to have for RBC indicies?
What is fibrinogen?
How long does it take to show up in blood after inflammation?
Acute Phase Protein
24 - 72 hours
TQ!!! Which species activate platelets easily?
Like Rough Stick!
Which breed has larger platelets than others?
Cavalier King Charles
Sometimes they even have less of them
When can platelets be artificially decreased?
Thrombocytopenia occurs due to?
Don't make it
What size are young platelets?
Thrombocytosis happens when?
Blood Smear: What changes morphology?
Oxidative Damage = Heinz bodies
Why do a smear?
Helps decide if regenerative
On Blood Smear what would RBC with low Hb look like?
Blood Smear: Heinz bodies happen due to?
Blood Smear: Agglutination occurs due to?
Rouleaux formation is NOT agglutination!
How should you do Saline Dilution to decipher Rouleaux from Agglutination?
1/2 drop of blood with 4-5 drops of saline
If bands are under 10,000 what scenario could their number be significant?
if > 10% total neuts
QBC: Dark black line is?