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Flashcards in UA (MR) Deck (61):
1

What test tells you more information about kidney function earlier than other tests?

USG

2

What will you analyze in a UA?

Physical appearance (smell too)
Chemical Examination
Sediment Examination

3

When does a UA evaluate? (broad) (3)

General Health
Hydration
Renal Function (USG) WHEN/ONLY in conjunction with serum chem

4

What color should urine be?

Yellow to Amber depending on how [ ]

5

Why does alcohol make you pee more?

Alcohol inhibits ADH

6

What makes pee turbid?
How much is ok?

Increased Particulate Matter
A Lil - no chunks!

7

Abnormalities in color: what does red/brown mean?

Hematuria
Hemoglobinuria
Myoglobinuria

8

How can you differentiate between Hematuria, Hemoglobinuria, and Myoglobinuria?

more tests

9

Abnormalities in color: what does Orange to Brown mean?

Bilirubinuria

10

If you spin your pee down and theres a lil pellet at the bottom what is it?

Hematuria - RBCs

11

TQ! What is the MOST specific Renal Function test?

USG

12

What part of the kidney does USG assess?

Renal Tubules

13

What should you use to evaluate USG?

Refractometer
Dipstick - unreliable

14

What does USG tell you the kidney can or cannot do?

Concentrate Urine

15

Is there a "normal" USG?

Depends on health and hydration status

16

Hyposthenuric range?

≤ 1.007 or "ten-oh-seven"

17

What is the exact same Specific Gravity as plasma?

Isosthenuric range:1.008 – 1.012

18

Isothenuric Range?

1.008 - 1.012

19

TQ! Hypersthenuric Range?

DOG ≥ 1.030
CAT ≥ 1.035
HORSE ≥ 1.025

20

If kidneys (CKD) aren't working what range will USG be within?

Isosthenuric, Can't really do anything with it

21

Is it possible to be in isosthenuric and not have CKF?
When?

Yes, When heavily hydrated

22

If you have an azotemic dog with USG of 1.029 what does that mean?

RENAL DZ, period.

23

Urine Protein must be evaluated in relation to?
Why?

USG.
In SUPER [urine] a 1+ protein is not significant.
In WEAK [urine} a 4+ is BAAADDD!!!

24

WIth a USG of 1.002 are the kidneys working?

YES, diluting urine is also an active process like concentrating urine. Putting water in!

25

Why are urine tests usually compared with ratio to Creatinine (UPC)?

Standardizes by taking GFR out of the picture

26

What if you have a UTI, will protein be higher?
Will Urine Protein:Creatine Ratio tell you anything?

Yes.
P:C ratio will not tell you anything bc protein is post renal

27

What can cause elevation in Urine Protein?

Hemorrhage Shock
Fever
Exercise
Inflammation
Tubular Leakage
Glomerular Dz

28

With clean sediment what can cause elevated UPC?

Glomerular Disease
Albumin leaking across glomerular membrane

29

Which keytone is NOT detected by dipstick?

B Hydroxybutyric Acid

30

List the Ketones?

B Hydroxybutyric Acid
Acetone,
Acetoacetic Acid

31

When do Ketones elevate?

When fat metabolism replaces carbohydrates:
Starvation
Diet
Diabetic Ketoacidosis

32

Renal Threshold for Glucose in Dog? Cats?

Dog = 180 mg/dL
Cat = 280 mg/dL

33

Why does urine glucose elevate?

Kidney Abnormalities (Rare)
Stress
DM

34

What must you remember about testing urine samples?

For accurate Glucose reading you must evaluate ASAP

35

What does it mean if there is a small amount of Bilirubin in a dogs urine?

Normal for dogs

36

How high is the Renal threshold for Bilirubin in Cats?

VERY HIGH - ANY elevation in of concern

37

I say Bilirubin, you say?

Prehepatic
Hepatic
Posthepatic

38

Urobilinogen in UA indicates?
Absence?

Patent Bile Duct.
Absence: Possible obstructed bile duct but not sensitive or specific and need other tests to confirm.
Of little diagnostic value

39

Occult Blood can test positive due to?
How can you tell what it is?

Hematuria
Myoblobin
Hemoglobin
Chemical Analysis

40

What causes Myoglobinuria?

Muscle Dz

41

What causes Hemoglobinuria?

Hemolysis

42

What causes Hematuria?

Hemorrhage or inflammation anywhere in the Urinary Tract.
RBCs in sediment

43

What is the normal pH for Urine?
Affected by?

6.0 – 7.5 Wide range including:
Acid/Base Balance systemically
Diet

44

What pH should you start thinking if Urine pH gets up to around 9.0?

UTI - Urease + Producing Bacterial Infection

45

What cells can be seen on Urine Sediment?
How many are normal in Cystocentesis?

WBC (0-3)
RBC (0-3)
Epithelial (Occational)

46

Which Urine sample cannot be submitted for culture?

Free catch duh, there's bugs all up in that shit...uh, pee.
There will be more cells and more bacteria

47

How much urine should be submitted for analysis?
Bonus if you keep enough?

5-10 mL (in recording she harped on 10)
Lab can go ahead and run a Urine Protein: Creatinine Ratio if there was protein in the urine

48

Is Free catch fine?

Yes, just expect more cells & don't submit for culture

49

Which cells on Urine Sediment should you examine together?
Why?

WBC & RBC.
Inflammation
Blood Contamination

50

Epithelial cell types on Urine Sediment Exam?
What can elevations mean?

Squamos Transitional - likes to get TCC
Renal - Rare
Inflammation, Degeneration, Neoplasia

51

Are crystals stones?

NO

52

Which crystals are present in normal urine?

Triple Phosphate
Calcium Oxylate
Calcium Carbonate
Urate
Amorphous

53

Which crystals can signify pathology if Cx suggest a problem too? Which are most likely?

ANY!
Ammonium Biurate
Tyrosine
Bilirubin
Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate
Cystine

54

If you see casts in urine what should you think?

KIDNEYS

55

Which casts are considered horrifying and scary?

Cellular

56

Hyaline casts are made of?
What are levels in healthy animal?
What causes them?

Hyaline casts = Mucoprotein
Healthy level= low
Caused by: Glomerular Leakage, Dehydration, Exercise, Fever

57

What are cellular casts made of?

Any Cells!
WBC - Inflammation
RBC - Hemorrhage
Epithelial - Renal Tubular Damage

58

Which casts aren't that scary?

Hyaline & Granular and Waxy

59

How do casts become granular and waxy?

age

60

If there is no bacteria in sediment analysis can you rule out UTI?
Why?

Nope; Depends on how dilute the urine is
How long it took to perform sediment

61

What should you always do with a diabetics urine?

Culture it! only by cytocentesis