Flashcards in UA (MR) Deck (61):
What test tells you more information about kidney function earlier than other tests?
What will you analyze in a UA?
Physical appearance (smell too)
When does a UA evaluate? (broad) (3)
Renal Function (USG) WHEN/ONLY in conjunction with serum chem
What color should urine be?
Yellow to Amber depending on how [ ]
Why does alcohol make you pee more?
Alcohol inhibits ADH
What makes pee turbid?
How much is ok?
Increased Particulate Matter
A Lil - no chunks!
Abnormalities in color: what does red/brown mean?
How can you differentiate between Hematuria, Hemoglobinuria, and Myoglobinuria?
Abnormalities in color: what does Orange to Brown mean?
If you spin your pee down and theres a lil pellet at the bottom what is it?
Hematuria - RBCs
TQ! What is the MOST specific Renal Function test?
What part of the kidney does USG assess?
What should you use to evaluate USG?
Dipstick - unreliable
What does USG tell you the kidney can or cannot do?
Is there a "normal" USG?
Depends on health and hydration status
≤ 1.007 or "ten-oh-seven"
What is the exact same Specific Gravity as plasma?
Isosthenuric range:1.008 – 1.012
1.008 - 1.012
TQ! Hypersthenuric Range?
DOG ≥ 1.030
CAT ≥ 1.035
HORSE ≥ 1.025
If kidneys (CKD) aren't working what range will USG be within?
Isosthenuric, Can't really do anything with it
Is it possible to be in isosthenuric and not have CKF?
Yes, When heavily hydrated
If you have an azotemic dog with USG of 1.029 what does that mean?
RENAL DZ, period.
Urine Protein must be evaluated in relation to?
In SUPER [urine] a 1+ protein is not significant.
In WEAK [urine} a 4+ is BAAADDD!!!
WIth a USG of 1.002 are the kidneys working?
YES, diluting urine is also an active process like concentrating urine. Putting water in!
Why are urine tests usually compared with ratio to Creatinine (UPC)?
Standardizes by taking GFR out of the picture
What if you have a UTI, will protein be higher?
Will Urine Protein:Creatine Ratio tell you anything?
P:C ratio will not tell you anything bc protein is post renal
What can cause elevation in Urine Protein?
With clean sediment what can cause elevated UPC?
Albumin leaking across glomerular membrane
Which keytone is NOT detected by dipstick?
B Hydroxybutyric Acid
List the Ketones?
B Hydroxybutyric Acid
When do Ketones elevate?
When fat metabolism replaces carbohydrates:
Renal Threshold for Glucose in Dog? Cats?
Dog = 180 mg/dL
Cat = 280 mg/dL
Why does urine glucose elevate?
Kidney Abnormalities (Rare)
What must you remember about testing urine samples?
For accurate Glucose reading you must evaluate ASAP
What does it mean if there is a small amount of Bilirubin in a dogs urine?
Normal for dogs
How high is the Renal threshold for Bilirubin in Cats?
VERY HIGH - ANY elevation in of concern
I say Bilirubin, you say?
Urobilinogen in UA indicates?
Patent Bile Duct.
Absence: Possible obstructed bile duct but not sensitive or specific and need other tests to confirm.
Of little diagnostic value
Occult Blood can test positive due to?
How can you tell what it is?
What causes Myoglobinuria?
What causes Hemoglobinuria?
What causes Hematuria?
Hemorrhage or inflammation anywhere in the Urinary Tract.
RBCs in sediment
What is the normal pH for Urine?
6.0 – 7.5 Wide range including:
Acid/Base Balance systemically
What pH should you start thinking if Urine pH gets up to around 9.0?
UTI - Urease + Producing Bacterial Infection
What cells can be seen on Urine Sediment?
How many are normal in Cystocentesis?
Which Urine sample cannot be submitted for culture?
Free catch duh, there's bugs all up in that shit...uh, pee.
There will be more cells and more bacteria
How much urine should be submitted for analysis?
Bonus if you keep enough?
5-10 mL (in recording she harped on 10)
Lab can go ahead and run a Urine Protein: Creatinine Ratio if there was protein in the urine
Is Free catch fine?
Yes, just expect more cells & don't submit for culture
Which cells on Urine Sediment should you examine together?
WBC & RBC.
Epithelial cell types on Urine Sediment Exam?
What can elevations mean?
Squamos Transitional - likes to get TCC
Renal - Rare
Inflammation, Degeneration, Neoplasia
Are crystals stones?
Which crystals are present in normal urine?
Which crystals can signify pathology if Cx suggest a problem too? Which are most likely?
Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate
If you see casts in urine what should you think?
Which casts are considered horrifying and scary?
Hyaline casts are made of?
What are levels in healthy animal?
What causes them?
Hyaline casts = Mucoprotein
Healthy level= low
Caused by: Glomerular Leakage, Dehydration, Exercise, Fever
What are cellular casts made of?
WBC - Inflammation
RBC - Hemorrhage
Epithelial - Renal Tubular Damage
Which casts aren't that scary?
Hyaline & Granular and Waxy
How do casts become granular and waxy?
If there is no bacteria in sediment analysis can you rule out UTI?
Nope; Depends on how dilute the urine is
How long it took to perform sediment