Endocrine Drugs - Pancreatic Hormones, Antidiabetic Agents, and Glucagon Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Endocrine Drugs - Pancreatic Hormones, Antidiabetic Agents, and Glucagon > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine Drugs - Pancreatic Hormones, Antidiabetic Agents, and Glucagon Deck (40):
0

What are the clinical applications of regular insulin?

Type I and II DM.

1

How is regular insulin administered?

Parenterally - short acting.

2

What are the toxicities of regular insulin?

1. Hypoglycemia
2. Weight gain

3

What is the mechanism of action of metformin?

Decreased endogenous glucose production.

4

What is the clinical application of metformin?

Type II DM.

5

How is metformin administered?

Orally

6

What are the toxicities of metformin?

1. GI disturbances
2. Lactic acidosis (rare)

7

What is the mechanism of action of glipizide?

Increases insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells by closing ATP-sensitive K channels.

8

What is the clinical application of glipizide?

Type II DM

9

How is glipizide administered?

Orally

10

What are the possible toxicities of glipizide?

1. Hypoglycemia
2. Weight gain

11

Mention 3 rapid-acting insulins.

1. Lispro
2. Aspart
3. Glulisine

12

Mention an intermediate-acting insulin.

NPH

13

Mention 2 long-acting insulins.

1. Detemir
2. Glargine

14

Mention 2 drugs that act similarly to glipizide.

1. Glyburide
2. Glimepiride
Sulfonylurea drugs with intermediate duration of action.

15

Mention 2 fast-acting insulin secretagogues.

1. Repaglinide
2. Nateglinide

16

What is the mechanism of action of acarbose?

Inhibit intestinal α-glucosidases.

17

What is the clinical application of acarbose?

Type II DM.

18

How is acarbose administered?

Orally

19

What is the toxicity of acarbose?

GI disturbances.

20

Mention a drug similar to acarbose.

Miglitol

21

What is the mechanism of action of rosiglitazone?

Regulates gene expression by binding to PPAR-γ.

22

What is the clinical application of rosiglitazone?

Type II DM.

23

How is rosiglitazone administered?

Orally

24

What are the toxicities of rosiglitazone?

1. Fluid retention
2. Edema
3. Anemia
4. Weight gain
5. Bone fractures in women
6. May worsen heart disease and increase risk of MI

25

Mention a drug similar to rosiglitazone, possibly with less cardiovascular side effects.

Pioglitazone

26

What is the mechanism of action of exenatide?

Analog of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) - activated GLP-1 receptors.

27

What is the clinical application of exenatide?

Type II DM.

28

How is exenatide administered?

Parenterally

29

What are the toxicities of exenatide?

1. GI disturbances
2. Headache
3. Pancreatitis

30

What is the mechanism of action of sitagliptin?

Inhibitor of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DDP-4) that degrades GLP-1 and other incretins.

31

What is the clinical application of sitagliptin?

Type II DM.

32

How is sitagliptin administered?

Orally

33

What are the toxicities of sitagliptin?

1. Rhinitis
2. Upper respiratory tract infections
3. Rare allergic reactions

34

What is the mechanism of action of pramlintide?

Analog of amylin activates amylin receptors.

35

What are the clinical applications of pramlintide?

Type I and type II DM.

36

What are the toxicities of pramlintide?

1. GI disturbances
2. Hypoglycemia
3. Headache

37

What are the clinical applications of glucagon?

1. Severe hypoglycemia
2. Beta blocker overdose

38

How is glucagon administered?

Parenterally

39

What are the possible toxicities of glucagon?

1. GI disturbances
2. Hypotension

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