Endocrine Function II Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrine Function II Part 2 Deck (38):
0

Describe lab results found in TSH-Independent (Primary) Hyperthyroidism.

Increased T3/T4, Increased Free T4/T3, Decreased TSH (because the ant. pit. is normal), Decreased TBG, Increased THBR, and Decreased TRH (also called TRF); this occurs because negative feedback is turned off and the problem is occurring in the thyroid gland

1

Describe lab results found in TSH-Dependent (secondary or tertiary) hyperthyroidism.

Increased T3/T4, increased TSH (thyroid normal but ant. pit. not working), decreased TRF (TRH-secondary) or increased TRF (TRH-tertiary)

2

What does the TRH stimulation test differentiate?

Normal response=Tertiary Hypothyroidism; Blunted Response=Secondary Hypothyroidism

3

State the use of Total T3 assays.

Measures both free and bound hormone; aids in diagnosis and monitoring of hyperthyroid patients with decreased TSH and normal Free T4

4

The clinical use of this test is to directly or indirectly assess available TBG binding sites but is not to diagnose hyper- or hypo- thyroidism. May be ordered if the patient has abnormal total T4 or total T3 levels with a normal TSH.

THBR- Thyroid Hormone Binding Ratio with T3 Uptake Test

5

The clinical use of the test is primarily to monitor patients with follicular thyroid cancer (which would be increased); it is the storage form of the thyroid hormone precursors

Thyrogobulin

6

This is the most sensitive and specific mesaure of thyroid activity

TSH

7

This test aids in diagnosis and monitoring of hyperthyroid patients with suppressed TSH levels and normal Free T4 levels

Total T3

8

This test by itself, does not provide enough clinical information and must be reported in conjunction with the other thyroid tests.

Total T4

9

This test provides an approximation of the free hormone concentration in the presence of abnormal TBG levels as TBG or free hormone levels are not easily measured

THBR

10

State the SPECIFIC diagnostic usefulness of the following
-Antithyroidglobulin antibody (TgAb)

Hashimoto's thyroiditis >85% reactivity, grave's disease >30% reactivity, and also a tumor marker for recurrence of thyroid cancer

11

State the SPECIFIC diagnostic usefulness of the following
-Thyroid peroxidase autoantibody (TPOAb)

-Hashimoto's thyroiditis 100% reactivity, Grave's disease 70-80% reactivity; Ab itself may be cytotoxic to the thyroid

12

State the SPECIFIC diagnostic usefulness of the following
-TSH receptor autoantibody (TRAb)

Immunoglobulins that bind to thyroid cell membranes at or near TSH receptor site; hyperactivity in Grave's or inability for TSH to stimulate the thyroid in Hashimoto's; provides differential diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, predicts fetal dysfunction, and predicts course of grave's patients on antithyroid drug therapy

13

What is the number of carbons present in estrane?

18

14

What is the number of carbons present on androstane?

19

15

What is the number of carbons present on pregnane?

21

16

What is the analytical importance of the phenolic hydroxyl group on carbon #3 on estrane and its derivatives?

Estrogens on carbon #3, androgens do not have this

17

What are the biological effects of estrogen?

primary and secondary sexual characteristics

18

What is the site of production of estrogen?

Graafian follicle of ovaries

19

What is the most potent, physiologically active estrogen?

Estradiol, evaluates ovarian function

20

What is the major post-menopausal estrogen?

Estrone

21

What is the major estrogen produced during pregnancy?

Estriol, decreased in fetal distress and measured to monitor progress of pregnancy

22

Describe the menstrual cycle with the rise and fall of estrogen, FSH, and LH

E2 removes negative feedback for FSH/LH which increases FSH and increases estrogen.

23

What is the SPECIFIC biological effect of FSH in women

Chooses an egg

24

What is the SPECIFIC biological effect of LH in women?

LH stimulates ovulation

25

What is the SPECIFIC biological effect of FSH in men?

Stimulates Leydig cells to produce testosterone and Sertoli cells to produce sperm

26

What is the SPECIFIC biological effect of LH in men?

Stimulates Leydig cells in testes to produce testosterone

27

What is the clinical usefulness of continuously monitoring estriol levels urging pregnancy?

Indicate status of fetoplacental unit; need a premature delivery if sharp decrease in levels

28

What is the historical method for measuring estrogen?

Kober Reaction by GM-MS

29

What is the specific site of progesterone production in pregnant women?

Placenta

30

What is the specific site of progesterone production in non-pregnant women?

Ovarian corpus luteum

31

What are the three uses for progesterone measurement?

1 detect ovulation
2 detect ovarian tumors
3 detect placental dysfunction

32

What are two physiological effects of progesterone?

*prepares the uterus for fertilized egg implantation, important for maintenance of pregnancy, stimulates breast development, increases body temperature

33

Two physiological effects of hCG

Stimulates progesterone production and produced by trophoblasts that becomes the placenta (The alpha subunits is identical to FSH, LH, and TSH)

34

Which sub unit is measured in hCG?

Beta subunit

35

What are four uses for the measurement of hCG?

Detection of hCG producing tumors, detection of multiples, prediction of spontaneous abortion, and pregnancy testing

36

What are two physiological effects of human placental lactogen (HPL)?

Stimulates mammary gland development and monitors decrease in functional placental tissue (stimulates hormone production)

37

What is estriol levels are associated with down syndrome? (Increased or decreased)

hCG Decreased in fetal distress