Endocrine Function III (part 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrine Function III (part 1) Deck (30):
1

Basic anatomy of the adrenal cortex

(outer) capsule, adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla (inner)

2

Three layers of the adrenal cortex

- Zona Glomerulosa (outermost)
- Zona Fasciculata (middle layer)
- Zona Reticularis (innermost layer)

3

Three major hormone classes of the adrenal cortex

Estrane
Androsane
Pregnane

4

Major hormone(s) produced by Zona Glomerulosa layer

Mineralocorticoids

5

Major hormone(s) produced by Zona Faciculata layer

Glucocorticoids

6

Major hormone(s) produced by Zona Reticularis layer

Sex Hormones

7

Number of carbons on estrogens, androgens, and adrenal steroids

estrogens: 18
androgens: 19
adrenal steroids: 21

8

First Biosynthetic pathway for adrenocorticosteroid formation

Acetate to Cholesterol to Pregnenolone to Adrenocorticoids

9

Second Biosynthetic pathway for adrenocorticosteroid formation (not preferred)

Pregnenolone to DHEA to Androstenedione to Testosterone to (Estradiol)

10

Causes of adrenocorticosteroids utilizing alternate pathway instead of the preferred pathway

Enzyme deficiencies

11

Importance of enzymes in steroid biogensis

Takes enzymes to make conversions to final product

12

Major site of steroid metabolism

liver

13

Form of adrenocorticosteroids excreted in the urine

Liver is site of catabolism; water insoluble hormones must be conjugated with sulfates or glucuronic acid to be excreted in urine

14

Steroid which has a neg feedback effect on adrenocorticotrophic hormone

Cortisol

15

Name of the principle cortisol-binding protein

CBG

16

mineralocorticoids
- metabolic effects

maintain sodium and potassium balance

17

Most potent glucocorticoid

cortisol

18

Most potent mineralocorticoid

aldosterone

19

most potent adrenocortical androgen

Testosterone

20

Four specific regulatory factors for aldosterone (order in importance)

1. Potassium secretion
2. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
3. Total body sodium concentration
4. ACTH

21

What is the role of renin-angiotensin system on the regulation of aldosterone

Know the system! Releases aldosterone and reabsorbs Na and releases K+

22

seven metabolic effects of glucocorticoids

1. Promotion of gluconeogenesis and lipolysis
2. Promotion of liver glycogenesis
3. Promotion of liver glycogenolysis
4. Inhibition of protein synthesis and promotion of protein catabolism
5. Increased anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive action
6. Decreased intestinal absorption of calcium; increased loss of calcium from bone matrix
7. Miscellaneous: enzyme production, appetite promotion; regulation of blood pressure

23

Three regulatory factors for the release of glucocorticoids

1. ACTH stimulation of hormone
2. Normal diurnal variation
3. Stress

24

feedback mechanism utilized in glucocorticoid hormonal regulation

Cortisol causes negative feedback on hypothalamus and anterior pituitary

25

Normal diurnal variation of cortisol

While sleeping, cortisol is very low so negative feedback is removed; ACTH is released and there is a sharp increase while waking up (blood pressure and sugar increase so you don't pass out). The cortisol levels decrease over the day. By 4pm it should be 1/3 the level it was at 8am.

26

What androgen is produced in the greatest quantity by the adrnal cortex

Testosterone

27

List six conditions associated with a hypo functioning adrenal cortex

1. Primary hypoaldosteronism
2. Secondary hypoaldosteronism
3. Addison's disease
4. Acute adrenal insufficiency
5. Secondary and tertiary adrenal insufficiency

28

Differentiate causes of primary hypoaldosteronism

Inability to adjust to stress, low NA, high K, high renin, low ALD

29

Differentiate causes of secondary hypoaldosteronism

Occurs in patient with renal disease, kidney unable to produce and release renin and therefore cause low ALD

30

List the typical sodium, potassium, and renin levels observed in hypoaldosteronism

Low Na, high K, high renin