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Flashcards in Tumor Markers Deck (24):
0

This term means swelling

tumor

1

This is defined as new growth.

neoplasm

2

this type of neoplasm is autonomous, slow-growing; may be locally invasive but does not spread to distant organs

benign

3

this type of neoplasm is autonomous, rapidly-growing; locally invasive and spreads (metastasizes) to distant organs

malignant

4

This term means independent of the usual control mechanisms.

autonomous

5

This is a malignant neoplasm.

cancer

6

In benign endocrine tumors, the mass of tumor in the body can be estimated by measuring the concentration of what?

normal cell product in blood

7

The mass of most _______ tumors must be assessed by measuring the concentration of a molecules known to be increased in patients with a specific malignancy.

malignant

8

this neoplasm has some characteristics of the tissue of origin

differentiated neoplasm

9

this neoplasm has few characteristics of the tissue of origin

poorly-differentiated neoplasm

10

this neoplasm has no characteristics of the tissue of origin, morphologically or functionally

anaplastic (without form) neoplasm

11

This syndrome has symptoms of a cancer patient that are not a result of local neoplastic growth/spread and are not a result of metastases to distant sites.

paraneoplastic syndrome

12

What are the three most common paraneoplastic syndromes?

1 Cushing's syndrome
2 hypercalcemia
3 syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone (SIADH)

13

What are the underlying cancers of Cushing's syndrome?

pancreas and lung

14

What are the casual substances of cushing's syndrome ?

ACTH or ACTH-like substances produced by the cancer cells

15

What are the typical lab results of Cushing's syndrome?

excess cortisol release, abnormal FBG, glucose intolerance, and an increased serum cortisol concentration

16

What are the underlying cancers of hypercalcemia?

lung, breast, and ovary

17

What is the casual substance of hypercalcemia?

parathyroid hormone related protein

18

What are the lab results for hypercalcemia?

PTH increased OR PTH related protein detected

19

What are the underlying cancers of SIADH?

brain and lung

20

What is the casual substance of SIADH?

antidiuretic hormone

21

What are the lab tests for SIADH?

sodium and osmolality, measured in both serum and urine

22

This is a substance produced by a tumor, or by the host in response to a tumor, that is used to differentiate a tumor from normal tissue or to determine the presence of a tumor based on measurements in the blood or secretions.

tumor marker

23

What are 4 current uses of tumor markers?

1 monitor the treatment and progression of cancer
2 to determine the success of initial treatment (surgery)
3 detect the recurrence of cancer
4 monitor the effectiveness of continuing treatment