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Flashcards in Endocrine Histology Deck (47):
1

specialized cells which secrete substances that affect other cells

endocrine cells

2

common features of all endocrine tissues

ductless, vascular, epithelial, polyhedral, blocks/plate/cord organization

3

T/F endocrine tissues are ductless

T

4

Endocrine cells secrete substances into _____

interstitial fluid --> bloodstream (high vascularity)

5

fenestrated epithelium

allows passage of molecules into capillaries by endocrine glands

6

Which endocrine glands have an epithelial growth pattern?

thyroid, parathyroid, anterior pituitary, adrenal cortex, pancreatic islets --> cords or clumps of cells attached to each other

7

Which endocrine gland is mesodermal in origin?

adrenal cortex

8

Which endocrine glands have mesenchymal growth pattern?

leydig and ovarian stromal cells,granulosa, and luteal --> connective tissue organization

9

Which endocrine glands have neural growth pattern?

posterior pituitary, adrenal medulla

10

T/F endocrine cells can be individual

T --> enteroendocrine cells, enuroendocrine cells, and juxtaglomerular cells are distributed throughout

11

The ______ connects the pituitary to the hypothalamus

infundibulum

12

derivation of anterior pituitary

ectoderm of oropharynx (rathke's pouch)

13

derivation of posterior pituitary

neuroectoderm of floor of third ventricle

14

anterior pituitary secretes:

gh, prolactin, lh, fsh, tsh, acth

15

posterior pituitary secretes:

oxytocin and ADH

16

3 parts of anterior pituitary

pars distalis, intermedia, tuberalis

17

pars distalis

bulk of AP, arises from anterior wall of RP

18

pars intermedia

remant of posterior wall of RP

19

pars tuberalis

forms sheath around infundibulum and contains veins from hypothalamus/thalamus

20

The primary portion of the PP is called _____

pars nevrosa

21

3 main cell types in AP

chromophils (acidophils: pink and basophils: purple on h/e) and chromophobes

22

Which endocrine cells are acidophils?

somaotropes and lactotropes (gh and prl)

23

Which endocrine cells are basophils?

corticotrpes, gonadotropes, thyrotropes (ACTH, LH/FSH, TSH)

24

nerve axons in the hypothalamohypophyseal tract are myelinated/nonmyelinated

nonmyelinated --> non synaptic and secrete hormones vs nt's

25

glial cells in the posterior pituitary are called

pituicytes

26

thyroid is derived from ____

endoderm of pharyngeal floor

27

lobes of thyroid

pyramidal, right, left and isthmus

28

Extracellular thyroglobulin called ____ accumulates in the _____

colloid --> follicles

29

Characteristic feature of thyroid

follicles with large lumen surrounded by simple cuboidal epithelium

30

thyroglobulin is used to produce ___ and ___

T3 and T4

31

_____ cells produce calcitonin

parafollicular C cells

32

How many parathyroid glands are there?

4 --> lower glandsderived from 3rd branchial arch like thymus/upper glands from 4th branchial arch

33

Role of parathyroid

regulate calcium metabolism

34

T/F fat cells in parathyroid increase with age with 60-70% of glands becoming fat

T

35

3 types of parenchymal cells in parathyroid

principal/chief cells (present before birth), oxyphil cells (acidophlic, after puberty), adipocytes (more with age)

36

_____ cells make pth

chief cells

37

Which part of adrenal is larger? cortex, medulla

cortex = 90% of weight

38

The _____ contains cells similar to sympathetic neurons which secrete catecholamines in the adrenal

medulla

39

3 zones of adrenal cortex

glomerulusa (mineralocorticoids/aldosterone), fasciculata (glucocorticoids/cortisol), reticularis (gonadocorticoids/adrogens)

40

T/F adrenal medulla cells are considered post-synaptic neurons

T --> but no axons (probably due to cortisol inhibition)

41

2 types of chromaffin cells

large dense core: norepi, small core: epi --> adrenal medulla

42

the adrenal medulla is composed of ____ cells

chromaffin

43

exocrine pancreas is composed of ____

acini and ducts and produce enzymes for digestion

44

endocrine pancreas is composed of ____

islet cells: islands of neuroendocrine cells

45

islets develop during ___ weeks gestation

9-12 weeks

46

islets are most numerous in which portion of pancreas

tail

47

cell types in pancreatic islets

A (glucagon), B (insulin), D (somatostatin), PP(pancreatic polypeptide), D1 (VIP), EC (secretin, substance p, motilin)