Molecular Basis of Type 2 Diabetes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Molecular Basis of Type 2 Diabetes Deck (15):

T/F insulin increases the volume of distribution of galactose

T --> increasing Vd by distributing glucose to muscle reduces plasma steady state glucose concentration


_____ is the insulin regulated rate limiting step to glucose metabolism

transport across plasma membrane


Translocation hypothesis

insulin upregulates # of glucose (glut4 - muscle/fat) transporters on cell membrane


What signals insertion of glut4 receptors into cell membrane?

insulin or muscle contraction


Implications of translocation hypothesis in T2D

glucose transport is insensitive to insulin but sensitive to contraction in T2D --> exercise can be effective in inducing glucose uptake


the inability of insulin to reduce hepatic output and stimulate glucose uptake in cells.

insulin resistance


If you have a high blood sugar during fasting where is the defect?

in hepatic glucose output (because muscle uptake at fasting/in absence of insulin is close to 0)


If you have high blood sugar after eating, where is the defect?

Either resistance at the membranes of muscle cells preventing glucose uptake OR resistance at the liver preventing shutdown of glucose output


Insulin resistance on fat

rate of FA release into bloodstream increases


Impact of increased FA

liver produces more triglycerides


Why are fatty acids transported as VLDL and then broken down at the target site instead of just being transported as is?

In times of starvation, the volume of fatty acids being transported would lower the blood pH --> conversion increases carrying capacity of blood


Insulin resistance syndromes involve a ____ impairment in insulin action

selective --> e.g. liver should not produce triglycerides if insulin resistant --> possible that liver is insulin resistant in context of glucose but not in context of lipids


T/F Central obesity is a risk factor for T2D

T --> more of a factor than gynoid obesity


T/F BMI is a good indicator of adiposity

F --> people have different lean/fat ratios


How might lipids relate to insulin resistance

1. if have lots of fat, excess spills into blood as ffa --> goes to muscles and tissues and stimulates insulin resistance

2. in crease in fat mass --> activation of immune system --> insulin resistance