Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

Ace Ess: Anatomy > Endocrine System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine System Deck (31):
0

Endocrine system

Regulates bodily activities with hormones produced by various glands

1

Principal endocrine glands

Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, pancreas, and gonads

2

Pituitary gland (master gland)

Has a regulatory effect on several endocrine glands and is important in controlling a number of diverse bodily functions; divided into anterior and posterior lobes

3

Pituitary gland; posterior lobe

Produces the hormones vasopressin and oxytocin

4

Pituitary gland; anterior lobe

Produces follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (GH), and prolactin

5

Thyroid gland

Produces thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and calcitonin

6

Adrenal glands

Each gland consists of a medulla (inner portion) and cortex (outer portion) which are so distinct they're in effect their own endocrine organs

7

Adrenal glands cortex

Produces mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and gonadocorticoids

8

Adrenal glands medulla

Produces epinephrine and norepinephrine

9

Pancreas

Produces insulin and glucagon; plays a role in producing digestive enzymes

10

Gonads

Produces testosterone and estrogen; promotes sex-specific physical characteristics and reproductive function

11

Parathyroid glands

Produces parathyroid hormone (PTH)

12

Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone)

Hormone released by the pituitary gland; acts on the kidneys to reduce urinary excretion of water

13

Oxytocin

Hormone released by pituitary gland; stimulates the smooth muscles of the reproductive organs and intestines

14

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)

(gonadotropins)

Hormones released by the pituitary gland; stimulates gonads to secrete sex hormones called

15

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

Hormone released by the pituitary gland; stimulates thyroid glands to secrete thyroid hormones

16

Adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)

Hormone released by the pituitary gland; stimulates adrenal gland to secrete glucocorticoids

17

Growth hormone (GH)

Hormone released by the pituitary gland; stimulates general growth, skeletal growth, and promotes metabolic functions

18

Prolactin

Hormone released by the pituitary gland; initiates and maintains breast-milk secretion

19

Thyroxine and triiodothyronine

Hormones released by the thyroid gland; increases oxygen consumption and heat production, and affects many metabolic functions

20

Calcitonin

Hormone released by the thyroid gland; decreases blood calcium and phosphate levels by accelerating the absorption of calcium by the bones

21

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

Hormone released by the parathyroid; raises plasma calcium levels and lowers plasma phosphate levels

22

Epinephrine (adrenaline)

Hormone released by the adrenal gland; prepares the body for emergencies and stress by elevating blood glucose levels, increasing the rate, force, and amplitude of the heartbeat, and dilating the blood vessels feeding the heart, lungs, and skeletal muscles

23

Norepinephrine (noradrenaline)

Hormone released by the adrenal gland; prepares the body for emergencies and stress by increasing the heart rate and force of contractions of the cardiac muscles

24

Mineralocorticoids

Hormone released by the adrenal gland; promotes reabsorption of sodium and excretion of potassium in the kidneys

25

Glucocorticoids

Hormone released by adrenal gland; aids in the utilization of glucose and mobilization of fatty acids

26

Gonadcorticoids

Hormone released by the adrenal gland; includes testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone

27

Insulin

Hormone released by the pancreas; acts to facilitate the uptake and utilization of glucose by cells, prevents the breakdown of glycogen in the liver and muscles, and plays a role in lipid and protein metabolism as it favors lipid formation and storage well facilitating the movement of amino acids into cells

28

Glucagon

Hormone released by the pancreas; generally opposes the actions of insulin by decreasing glucose oxidation and increasing the blood sugar level (hyperglycemia)

29

Testosterone

Hormone released by the gonads; male sex hormone that initiates sperm production, stimulate the development of male secondary sex characteristics, and promote tissue building

30

Estrogen

Hormone released by the gonads; female sex hormone that regulates ovulation, menstruation, physiological adjustments during pregnancy, and the appearance of female secondary sex characteristics