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Flashcards in Digestive System Deck (26):
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Digestive systems functions

Ingestion of food, movement of food along the digestive tract, mechanical preparation, chemical digestion, absorption into the circulatory and lymphatic systems, elimination of indigestible substances and waste products from the body by defecation

1

Gastrointestinal tract (G.I. Tract)

The most basic structural level of the digestive system, a tube extending from the mouth to anus

2

Stomach

Chemical digestion as special stomach cells break down food particles and mechanical digestion as the stomach grinds the body into a thickness mixture chyme

3

Small intestines

The primary site of absorption and digestion

4

Small intestines segments

Duodenum (first 8 inches), jejunum (middle 8 feet), and the ileum ( final 12 feet)

5

Segmentation

Contractile process in the small intestines similar to peristalsis, perpendicular squeezing of chyme to force it backwards several inches for optimum contact with digestion juices and absorption cells

6

Large intestine (colon)

Final pathway of the digestive (5 feet) system where the final absorption of water and salt occurs leaving a semisolid book of fiber and indigestible substances to be expelled

7

Epiglottis

Prevents choking while swallowing by closing off the trachea to bypass the lungs

8

Cardiac sphincter (esophageal sphincter)

Rests at the upper portion of the stomach, prevents food and stomach acid from splashing back into the esophagus

9

Bolus

A swallowed food and saliva digestive mix that is moved through the G.I. tract

10

Peristalsis

The process by which muscles in the esophagus and intestine push food through the G.I. tract in a wave-like motion

11

Chyme

A semi-liquid mass of partially digested food expelled by the stomach into the duodenum

12

Pyloric sphincter

Separates the stomach from the small intestines

13

Duodenum

The first portion of the small intestines

14

Jejunum

The second portion of the small intestines

15

Ileum

The third portion of the small intestines

16

Bile

An emulsifier secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder, it is released in the duodenum to aid in the digestion of fats and oils

17

Villi

Finger-like projections from the folds of the small intestine

18

Microvilli

Tiny hair-like projections on villi that trap nutrient particles and transport them into the cells for absorption

19

Edema

Swelling of intercellular spaces

20

Interstitial fluid

Excess fluid between cells

21

Lymph fluid

Similar to blood but contains no red blood cells or platelets, as these components can't escape through blood vessel walls

22

Lymphatic capillaries

Specialized cells through which lymph returns to the bloodstream

23

Kidneys

The primary excretory organ of the urinary system, critical to maintaining an optimal internal environment for cells to function

24

Mechanical digestion

The process of chewing, swallowing, and propelling food through the G.I. tract

25

Chemical digestion

A form of digestion that involves the addition of enzymes to break down nutrients