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Ace Ess: Anatomy > Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (32):
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Functions of the nervous system

To gather and store information and to control various bodily functions in response to said information

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Neuromuscular system

The connection to the brain and spinal cord through a network of nerves circuits

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Nervous system structures

CNS and peripheral nervous system (PNS)

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CNS

Brain and spinal cord; control center of the nervous system, responsible for receiving sensory input and formulating responses to the information

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Components of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)

All nervous structures outside the CNS, namely the nerves and ganglia

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Ganglia

Nerve cell bodies associated with the nerves

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Peripheral nervous system divisions

Efferent division and Afferent division

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Afferent (sensory) decision

Carries nerve impulses to the CNS from receptors located in the skin, fasciae, joints, and visceral organs

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Efferent (motor) division

Handles outgoing information and is divided into the somatic and autonomous nervous systems

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Somatic nervous system

Carries nerve impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles and is under conscious control, outside of reflex response

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Autonomous nervous system

Generally subconscious, made of the nerves that transmit impulses to smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands; further divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic system

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Sympathetic nervous system

Causes the body to stop storing and mobilize all energy when under stress or emergency (fight or flight syndrome)

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Parasympathetic nervous system

Aids in controlling normal functions such as digestion, energy storage, and growth well the body is at rest

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Neuron

A nerve cell, the most basic structural and functional component of the nervous system

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Soma

A cell body

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Neuron processes

Fibrous extensions (axons and dendrites) from the soma of a neuron

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Dendrites

Conduct electrical impulses toward the cell body

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Axons

Transmit electrical signals away from the cell body

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Synapse

Small space between neurons

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Proprioception

Awareness of the body in relation to various segments and the external environment

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Proprioceptors

Receptors in the skin, in and around the joints and muscles, and in the inner ear that gather sensory information to achieve kinesthetic awareness

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Cutaneous receptors

Receptors in the skin that sends sensory information regarding pressure, touch, and movement of the hairs on the body

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Joint receptors

Send information regarding position, velocities, and acceleration at the joint

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Pacinian corpuscles

Deep receptors in the skin and joints sensitive to pressure

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Meissner's corpuscles

Receptors in the superficial layers of skin responsive to soft touch

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Golgi-mazzoni corpuscles

Located within the joint capsule, responsive to joint compression and stimulated by any weight-bearing activity

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Musculotendinous receptors

Receptors involved in muscular control, coordination, and contribute to the body sense of postural control

Golgi tendon organ (GTO), muscle spindle

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Autogenic inhibition

The automatic reflex relaxation caused by stimulation of the Golgi tendon organ

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Reciprocal inhibition

The reflex inhibition of the motor neurons of antagonists when the agonists are contracted

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Muscle spindle

Stretches when the muscle itself is under force triggering a reflex contraction in the muscle known as stretch reflex which allows the antagonist muscle group to relax

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Golgi tendon organ (GTO)

Senses increased tension within its associated muscle as the muscle contracts or stretches and functions to cause an inhibition of the contraction resulting in an enhanced contraction of the antagonist muscle group

31

Vestibular system

Three fluid-containing semicircular canals at right angles to each other and sensory hairs to detect movement of the fluid within head