Skeletal System Flashcards Preview

Ace Ess: Anatomy > Skeletal System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Skeletal System Deck (58):
0

Skeletal system (skeleton)

An active, living tissue responsible for support, movement, protection, storage, and formation of blood cells

1

Hemopoiesis

The active formation of blood cells

2

Structural functions of bone

Giving support to the soft tissues of the body and providing attachment sites for most muscles

3

Skeletal system storage

Stores calcium, phosphorus, fat, sodium and potassium

4

Skeleton system production

Production site for blood cells within the circulatory system including red blood cells, certain white blood cells, and platelets

5

Bone shape classifications

Long, short, flat, and irregular

6

Long bones

Classified by being longer than they are wide (long axis); they make up the majority of the skeleton

7

Short bones

Classified by having approximately the same length and width

8

Flat bones

Classified by being thin and typically curved

9

Irregular bones

Have diverse shapes, excluding them from the other classifications of bone shape

10

Cortical bone

Compact, dense bone found in the shafts of long bones and the vertebral endplates

11

Trabecular bone

Spongy or cancellous bone composed of thin plates that form a honeycomb pattern; predominantly found in the ends of long bones and the vertebral body

12

Cortical shell

Makes up roughly 75% of the skeletal system

13

Trabecular network

Makes up roughly 25% of the skeletal system

14

Cortical bones function

Provides strength, tendon attachment sites for muscle, and organ protection without excessive weight

15

Trabecular bones function

Provides a large surface area for mineral exchange, and helps maintain skeletal strength and integrity

16

Long bone structures

Diaphysis, proximal epiphysis, and distal epiphysis

17

Diaphysis

Shaft of the long bone

18

Proximal epiphysis

End of a long bone closest to the midline of the body

19

Distal epiphysis

End of a long bone furthest from the midline of the body

20

Medullary cavity

Hollow space inside the diaphysis and is used as a storage site for fat

21

Endosteum

Thin layer of connective tissue lining the medullary cavity

22

Red marrow

Resides in the trabecular tissue of certain long bones epiphysis; essential in the manufacture of red blood cells, most white blood cells, and platelets

23

Epiphyseal cartilage

Separates the diaphysis and epiphyseal in children and young adults, providing means for the bone to lengthen

24

Epiphyseal line

Bone that replaces the epiphyseal cartilage as skeletal growth is completed

25

Periosteum

The layer of dense connective tissue that covers the outer surface of bone

26

Remodeling

The process of continually reshaping and rebuilding the skeleton

27

Osteoblasts

Process of building new bone

28

Osteoclasts

Process of breaking down bone

29

Wolff's law

Bone is capable of increasing its strength in response to stress by laying down more bone

30

Axial skeleton

The 74 bones of the skull, vertebral column, sternum, and ribs; provides the main axial support for the body well protecting the central nervous system and major organs

31

Vertebral column

Composed of 33 vertebrae, categorized by region

32

Appendicular skeleton

The 126 bones of the upper and lower limbs, pectoral girdle, and pelvic girdle

33

Pectoral girdle

Clavicle and scapula, attached to the axial skeleton only at the sternum; offers little support the large range of movements

34

Pelvic girdle

Composed of the ileum, ischium, and the pubis; supports the body's weight and has extensive attachments to the axial skeleton through its articulation with the sacrum

35

Os coxae

The ileum, ischium, and pubis as a collective

36

Pubic symphysis

Strong joint made of cartilage that unites each side of the pelvic girdle

37

Articulation

Juncture where two bones meet; a joint

38

Joint types

Fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial

39

Fibrous joints

Classified as synarthroidal; held tightly by fibrous connective tissue allowing little or no movement

40

Synarthroidal joints

Joints considered immovable

41

Cartilaginous joints

Joints connected by cartilage and allow little to no movement

42

Synovial joints

Most common type of joint; characterized by free movement

43

Synovial joints characteristic traits

Articular cartilage, articular capsule, synovial membrane, and synovial fluid

44

Articular cartilage

Hyaline cartilage that covers the surface of long bones

45

Articular capsule

Encloses the joint with a double layered membrane

46

Ligament

Strong connective tissue that connects one bone to another

47

Synovial membrane

Inner layer of the articular capsule; well supplied by capillaries and produces synovial fluid

48

Synovial fluid

Thick liquid that nourishes the articular cartilage and lubricates the joint surface

49

Axis of rotation

Imaginary line that forms a right angle to the plane of movement a joint rotates on

50

Uniplanar joints (uniaxial)

Joints that move in one plane and have one axis of rotation

51

Biplanar joints (biaxial)

Joints that allow movement in two planes that are perpendicular to each other

52

Multiplanar joints (triaxial)

Joints that allow movement in three axes of rotation

53

Synovial joint general movements

Gliding, angular, circumduction, and rotation

54

Gliding movements

Synovial joint movements that occur when the surfaces of two adjoining bones move back-and-forth on each other (such as the movement between the base of a rib and its associated)

55

Angular movements

Synovial joint movements of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction

56

Circumduction movements

Synovial joint movements that occur when a joint is capable of incorporating all four angular movements to create one motion

57

Rotation movements

Synovial joint movements of a bone around a longitudinal axis