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Ace Ess: Anatomy > Muscular System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Muscular System Deck (37):
0

What does all muscle tissue have in common

The ability to contract and develop tension

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Types of muscle tissue

Skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle

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Skeletal muscle (striated muscle)

Attaches to the skeleton and, through voluntary contraction, exerts force on the bones to move them; exhibits alternating light and dark bands giving a striated appearance

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Smooth muscle

Functions involuntarily to regulate the movement of materials through the body, found in the walls of hollow organs and tubes such as the stomach, intestines, and blood vessels; lacks the striations

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Cardiac muscle

Specialized tissue that functions involuntarily to maintain the constant pumping action of the heart; has a striated appearance

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Tendon

A specialized form of connective tissue that attaches the muscle to the bones

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Tendon of origin

Attaches to the proximal bone of a joint

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Tendon of insertion

Attached to the more distal bone of a joint

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Agonist (prime mover)

The muscle directly responsible for observed movement

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Antagonist

The muscle that acts in opposition to the contraction produced by an agonist (prime mover) muscle

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Longitudinal muscle

A muscle in which the fibers run parallel to the long axis of a muscle, forming a long, strap like arrangement; capable of producing considerable movement but is relatively weak compared to other muscle fiber arrangements

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Unipennate muscle

Muscles that have a tendon that runs the entire length of the muscle, with muscle fibers inserting diagonally on one side of the tendon

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Bipennate muscles

Muscles that have a tendon that runs the entire length of the muscle, with muscle fibers inserting obliquely on each side of the tendon

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Mutlipennate muscles

Muscles that have a complex arrangement that involve the convergence of several tendons

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General categories of skeletal muscle

Fast-twitch muscle fibers and slow-twitch muscle fibers

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Slow-twitch muscle fibers
(type I or slow-oxidative fibers)

Possess a high volume of capillaries, myoglobin, and mitochondria making them resistant fatigue and capable of sustaining aerobic metabolism

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Subtypes of fast-twitch muscle fibers

IIx and IIa muscle fibers

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Type IIx muscle fibers (fast-glycolytic fibers)

The largest and fastest type of muscle fiber; possesses a low volume of mitochondria but a high number of glycolytic in enzymes for considerable force-production and anaerobic capacity

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Type IIa fibers
(fast-oxidative glycolytic fibers)

Possess speed, fatigue, and force production capabilities somewhere between type I and type IIx muscle fibers making them highly adaptable

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Influences on the percentage of specific muscle fiber types

Genetics, hormones, and exercise habits

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Muscle fibers

Tiny individual muscle cells

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Fasciae

Thin sheets of connective tissue membranes that hold muscle fibers in place

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Epimysium

Fasciae of that incases the entire muscle

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Perimysium

Fibrous sheath of fascia that holds bundles of muscle fibers within the epimysium

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Endomysium

Fasciae wrapping individual muscle fibers within the perimysium

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Mitochondria

The powerplant of the cells where aerobic metabolism occurs

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Myoglobin

A compound similar to hemoglobin, which aids in the storage and transport of oxygen in muscle cells

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Myofibril

The portion of the muscle containing the thick (myosin) and thin (actin) contractile filaments that give the striated appearance to skeletal muscle

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Myosin

Thick contractile protein in a myofibril

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Actin

Thin contractile protein in a myofibril

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Sacromere

The basic functional unit of the myofibril containing the contractile proteins that generate skeletal muscle movements

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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

A high-energy phosphate molecule required to provide energy for cellular function; produced both aerobically and anaerobically and stored in the body

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Neurotransmitter

A chemical substance that transports nerve impulses across synapses

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Acetylcholine

Neurotransmitter released at the end of nerve fibers in the somatic and parasympathetic systems to produce a muscle contract

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Criteria in the naming of muscles

Shape, action, location, attachments, number of divisions, and size relationships

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Shoulder girdle muscles main function

To fixate the scapula

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Muscles that anchor the scapula

There are 6 muscles anchoring the scapula. Four posterior )including the trapezius, rhomboid major, rhomboid minor, and levator scapulae) and two anterior (pectoralis minor and serrartus anterior)