Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

Health Pro > Endocrine System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine System Deck (87):
1

Aden/o

Gland, glandular

2

Adren/al
Adren/o

Relating to the adrenal gland

3

Calc/i

Relating to calcium

4

Cortic/o

Cortex

5

End/o

Within, inner

6

Gluc/o

Glucose

7

Glyc/o

Sugar

8

Hypo

Below

9

Lacti
Lacto

Milk

10

Mel/i
Mel/o

Honey, sugar

11

Myx/o

Mucus

12

Pancre/a
Pancre/o

Involving the pancreas

13

Para

Alongside, near

14

-phage
-phagia
-phagy

Eating

15

Thyr/o
Thyr/eo

Thyroid gland

16

Toc/o

Child birth

17

-tropic

Having an affinity for

18

Endocrine system

Composed of glands and organs that secrete hormones directly into the blood to ensure long-term regulation and internal balance (homeostasis)

19

Gland

An organized group of cells that function as secreting or excreting organs

20

Secretion

Process by which substance are produced and discharged from a gland for a particular physiological function

21

Excretion

Separating materials from the blood to be eliminated as waste

22

Hormones

Chemical substances formed in a gland and transported to a target cell to produce its effect

23

Target cell

Cell that responds to a particular hormone

24

Pituitary gland

Master gland that orchestrates endocrine function
(Aka: hypophysis)

25

Anterior pituitary gland

Part of the pituitary gland that secretes hormones
(Aka: adenohypophysis)

26

Acro

Extreme

27

Hypothalamus

Area of the brain that secretes releasing hormones and is involved with regulating temperature, thirst, and hunger

28

Thyroid gland

Bilobed-butterfly shape; inferior to larynx; anterior to trachea

29

Thyroxine

(T4) a hormone from the thyroid. Controls metabolism
Aka: tetraiodothyronine

30

Calcitonin

Thyroid hormone that lowers calcium ion levels

31

Parathyroid gland

Four glands embedded into the posterior surface of the thyroid

32

Parathyroid hormone

PTH. Hormone that increases blood calcium ion levels

33

Pancreas

Odd shaped gland between stomach and small intestine that controls insulin levels

34

Pancreatic islets

The endocrine cells of the pancreas that secrete hormones

35

Glucagon

Pancreatic hormone that increases blood glucose levels

36

Insulin

Pancreatic hormone that decreases blood glucose levels

37

Adrenal glands

Pyramid shaped gland over each kidney

38

Adrenal cortex

Outer portion of adrenal glands

39

Adrenal medulla

Inner portion adrenal glands

40

Aldosterone

Adrenal cortex hormone that regulates salt and water balance

41

Cortisol

Adrenal cortex hormone that has anti-inflammatory effects; hydrocortisone

42

Androgens

Supplement sex hormones produced by adrenal cortex

43

Epinephrine

Also known as adrenaline or norepinephrine. Adrenal medulla hormone involved in the fight-or-flight response

44

Pineal gland

Pine cone shaped gland, uppermost in brain, attached to the thalamus

45

Melatonin

Hormone secreted by pineal gland that is responsible for circadian rhythms and sexual menstruation

46

Thymus

Gland posterior to sternum

47

Thymosins

Group of hormones from the thymus gland involved in the development of immune system cells(T cells)

48

Endocrine

Secreting within bloodstream; ductless

49

Exocrine

Secrete outside the body
Ex) sweat

50

Gonads

Referring to both male and female reproductive organs

51

What causes the most of endocrine disorders?

Tumors

52

Tumor

Abnormal growth of cells

53

What are the two types of tumors?

Malignant and benign

54

Malignant

Cancerous

55

Benign

Non-cancerous

56

What is the cause of hyposecretion of melatonin

Insomnia

57

Hypersecretion of GH causes:

Acromegaly
Gigantism
Precocious puberty

58

Acromegaly

When hands, feet, and face enlarges after puberty. Mainly in men

59

Gigantism

Extreme tallness, decreased sexual development, possible mental development impairment that occurs before puberty
Ex) Robert Wadlow

60

What can hyposecretion of GH cause?

Dwarfism

61

Dwarfism

When your less than four feet tall with a normal torso and short extremities. Congenital or acquired

62

Precocious puberty

Unusually early puberty

63

Hyperthyroidism

Hypersecretion of thyroid hormones that control metabolism and growth

64

What are the three hormones of the thyroid gland

ASK JONTÉ

65

What are the side effects of hyperthyroidism

Nervousness
Tremors
Tachycardia
Weight loss

66

Goiter

Enlargement of the thyroid gland as a result of hypersecretion which could cause iodine deficiency and over secretion of TSH

67

Hypersecretion of thyroid hormones causes

Goiters and Graves' disease

68

What are some symptoms of goiters?

Dysphasia and cough

69

Dysphasia

Trouble swallowing

70

Graves' disease

Severe form of a disease that is more common in females due to hypersecretion of thyroid hormones

71

What does Graves' disease cause?

Exophthalmia
Goiter
Nervousness
Emotional instability
Tachycardia
Weight loss

72

Exophthalmia

Abnormal protrusion of the eyeballs

73

Hypothyroidism side affects:

Slow metabolism
Weight gain
Sluggishness

74

What happens to the thymus over time?

The thymus shrinks and is replaced by fat

75

What hormone does the thyroid secrete an what does it aid in?

Thymosin aids in immunity

76

Serum

Blood

77

PTH

Parathormone secreted by parathyroid in response to low levels of serum calcium. Puts calcium into blood from bones

78

Epinephrine

Prepares body for fight-or-flight. Blood flow to vital areas go up

79

What changes happens when epinephrine is secreted

Bp⬆️
HR⬇️
BS(Bowel sounds)⬇️

80

Hypersecretion of cortisol can cause:

Cushing syndrome

81

Cushing syndrome

Obesity, moon face, and a roll of fat on your back

82

Hyposecretion of cortisol causes:

Addison's disease

83

Addison's disease

Malaise(fatigue), weakness, hyper pigmentation, muscle atrophy

84

Hyper pigmentation

Darkening of the skin

85

How many months does a condition have to last to be considered chronic?

More than six months

86

How many months does a condition have to last to be considered acute?

Less than six months

87

True or false:
Type 2 diabetes is NEVER asymptomatic

False