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Flashcards in Muscular System Notes Deck (129):
1

Muscular system purpose

-Maintaining posture
-Producing heat
-Assisting lymph transport

2

Muscles take up ___% of body weight

40

3

Brachi/o

Arm

4

Brachy

Short

5

Bucc/o

Cheek

6

Cardi/o

Heart

7

Fasci/o

Fascia
A band

8

Fibr/o

Fiber

9

Kin/e
Kin/o

Movement
Motion

10

Kinesi/o
Kines/o

Motion

11

Muscul/o

Muscle

12

My/o

Muscle

13

Platy

Flat
Broad

14

Pter/o

Wing
Feather

15

Pterygo

Wing shaped

16

Rhabd/o

Rod shaped

17

Sarc/o

Muscle
Flesh

18

Tend/o
Ten/o

Tendon

19

-troph

Food nutrition

20

Troph/o

Food
Nutrition

21

Muscle cells

Microscopic thread-like structures that contract to move muscles

22

Muscle fibers

Muscle cells

23

Muscle tissue

Tissue composed of contractive muscle fibers

24

Skeletal tissue

Striated, voluntary muscle tissue attached to bones

25

Tendons

Tough, band like, voluntary fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone (striated)

26

Smooth muscle

Nonstriated, involuntary muscle tissue found lining organs and blood vessels

27

We have _____ muscles in our body

700

28

Peristalsis

Rhythmic waves of muscular contractions that occur in various tubular organs
Help move liquids through the body

29

Cardiac muscle tissue

Striated, involuntary muscle only found on the heart
Fibers move as one unit

30

Aponeurosis

A sheet of fibrous tissue that replaces a tendon
Found in areas of wide attachment (Ex. Between two muscles)

31

Fascia

A thin sheet of muscle that:
-envelopes the body beneath the skin
-encloses muscles
-encloses group of muscles

32

Origin

Muscle end that is connected to a relatively immovable part
Remains fixed during contraction

33

Insertion

Muscle end that is connected to a movable part
Moves during contraction

34

Atrophy

Decrease in muscle size
Cause be the result of injury, disease or lack of use

35

Hypertrophy

Increase in muscle size
Can be result of repetitive weight bearing exercises

36

Abductors

Muscles that abduct limbs from midline

37

Adductors

Adduct limbs from the midline

38

Extensors

Muscles that are used to extend limbs

39

Flexors

Muscles that are used to flex limbs

40

Mastication

Chewing

41

Occipitalis

Retracts and tenses scalp

42

Platysma

Stretches neck from chest to face

43

Pterygoid

Involved in opening and closing the jaw
Grates teeth during mastication

44

Sternocleidomastoid muscle

-Pair of 2 headed muscles that are found on each side of the neck
-origin=Sternum
-insertion=Clavicle and mastoid process
-prayer muscle that allows head-bowing

45

Sternohyoid

Depresses hyoid bone and larynx

46

Diaphragm

Enlarges thoracic cavity

47

External oblique

-Compresses abdomen
-Aids in posture
-Makes up lateral wall of the abdomen
-Runs down and medially from last 8 ribs to the ilium

48

Internal oblique

-Compresses abdomen
-Run at right angles of those external obliques
Origin- Iliac crest
Insert- last 3 ribs

49

Latissimus dorsi

-Extends and adducts upper arm
-Large flat muscle that covers the lower back

50

Spell the prayer muscle that flexes the head

S-T-E-R-N-O-C-L-E-I-D-O-M-A-S-T-O-I-D muscle

51

Pectoralis minor

Moves scapula against chest

52

Rectus abdominus

-Flexes trunk
-Runs from pubis to the ribcage
-Involve in contraction for defecation, child birth, and forced breathing

53

Rhomboideus major

Raises and adducts scapula

54

Tansversus abdominus

-Compresses abdomen when defecating
-Aids in posture
-runs horizontally across the abs
Origin- Lower ribs and Iliac crest
Insertion- Pubis

55

Trapezius

-Shrugs shoulders
-diamond shaped muscle that's the antagonist muscle to the sternocleidomastoid when compressed
Origin- occipital bone & vertebral column
Insertion- clavicle scapula

56

Biceps brachii

-Supinates forearm
-Flexes forearm
-Bulges when elbow is flexed

57

Brachialis

Flexes forearm

58

Brachioradialis

Flexes forearm

59

Deltoid

-Abducts upper arm
-Triangle shaped muscles that form the rounded part of the shoulders
-Great site for injections

60

Infraspinatus

Laterally rotates shoulder

61

Pronator teres

Medial arm rotation

62

Rotator cuff

Rotates arm muscles

63

The rotator cuff includes:
(And spell each)

-Supraspinatus
-Infraspinatus
-Teres minor
-Subscapularis

64

Subscapularis

Medially rotates shoulder

65

Supinator

Supinates forearm

66

Supraspinatus

Abducts shoulder

67

Teres major

Extends, adducts, and medially rotates shoulder

68

Teres minor

Rotates arm laterally

69

Triceps brachii

-Extends forearm
-Has 3 heads
Inserts at the ocranon process

70

Adductor magnus

Adducts hip
Flexes and rotates leg

71

Biceps femoris

Moves leg

72

Fibularis longus

Eversion of foot an plantar flexion

73

Gastrocnemius

Plantar flexion

74

Gluteus medius

-Abducts thigh
-Above gluteus maximus
-Good site for injections

75

Gracilis

Adducts thigh
Flexes and adducts leg

76

Hamstring group

Flexes leg muscles

77

Quadriceps group

Extends leg muscles

78

The quadricep group includes:
(And spell all)

-Rectus femoris
-Vastus intermedius
-Vastus lateralis
-Vastus medialis

79

Rectus femoris

Moves thigh

80

Sartorius

Flexes knee
Rotates hip

81

Semimembranosus

Flexes knee
Extends and rotates hip

82

Soleus

Plantar flexion

83

Tibialis anterior

Inverts foot

84

Vastus intermedius

Extends knee

85

Vastus lateralis

Extends knee

86

Vastus medialis

Extends knee

87

Myopathy

Any disease of the muscles that inherited or acquired

88

Fibromyalgia

Widespread muscle and joint pain of unknown origin

89

Myalgia

Muscle pain

90

Fibrosis

Abnormal formation of fibrous tissue

91

Fibrositis

Inflammation of fibrous tissue causing pain and stiffness

92

Muscular dystrophies

Hereditary diseases marked by muscle cell degeneration

93

Polymyositis

Autoimmune disease characterized by muscle inflammation and atrophy

94

Myosotis

Muscle information

95

Electromyography

Procedure using electrodes attached to the skin or inserted into the muscle to record the electrical activity of muscle tissue

96

Electromyogram

Record produced by Electromyography

97

Muscle biopsy

Muscle tissue sample taken for evaluation

98

Hernia

Abnormal protrusion o an organ as a result of pressure
A rupture

99

Rotator cuff injury

Injury to the four muscles o the shoulder and their associated tendons

100

Shins splints

A painful inflammation of the muscles surrounding the tibia as a result of running or jogging on hard, uneven surfaces or intensifying your exercises to quickly

101

Several tendon

Lacerated tendon

102

Tenoplasty

Surgical repair of a tendon

103

Strain

Injury from over extension or trauma that involves stretching or tearing muscle fibers

104

Sprain

Injury to the ligament of a joint caused by excessive force on the joint

105

Tendinitis

Tendon inflammation

106

Ways to name muscles

-Size
-Shape
-Number of heads
-Insertion(where it ends)
-Origin(where muscle begins)
-Fiber direction
-Action(Ex. Flexor, Extensor)

107

Endomysium

Delicate connective tissue sheath that surrounds/encases each muscle fiber

108

Perimysium

Course membrane that wraps many fibers together

109

Fascicle

Bundle of muscle fibers that have been wrapped by the Perimysium

110

Epimysium

Together "over coat" of connective tissue that covers many fascicles

111

Tendon

Cord-like, tough, help attach the fascia or Epimysium bones

112

Aponeurosis

Helps muscle attach to other muscle, sheet like

113

Function of the tendon

-Provide strengths to muscle and bone
-Can act as a cushion because they cross rough bones
-Help attach muscle to bone

114

Frontalis

Covers the frontal bone and inserts at the eyebrows
-Raises eyebrows and creates wrinkles on forehead

115

Orbicularis oculi

-Fibrous muscle that surrounds the eye sockets
-Closes eyelids, blinks, and winks

116

Oculi

Prefix/root that means eye

117

Orbicularis orus

Circular muscles around the mouth and lips (called the kissing muscle)

118

Buccinator

-Fleshy muscle that runs horizontally along the cheek and inserts in the orbicularis oris
-Flattens cheek when whistling or blowing
-Helps compress the cheek for chewing

119

Zygomaticus

-Corner of mouth to cheek bone
-Smile muscle that raises the side of the mouth

120

Masseter

-Covers the lower jaw and runs from the zygomatic process and the temporal bone to the mandible
-helps close jaw by lifting mandible

121

Temporalis

-Fan shaped muscle that covers the temporal bone
-Helps close jaw

122

What type of muscles are on the medial side of each thigh?

Adductor muscles

123

Tibialis anterior

Front of leg that dorsiflex and invert foot

124

Gluteus maximus

-Forms most of the buttox
-Important when climbing, jumping, and extension of the hip
-Brings hip in line with pelvis

125

Pectoralis major

-Large fan shaped muscle covering the upper part of the chest
-Starts at the shoulder girdle & first 6 ribs (forms first part of upper skeleton)
-Inserts at proximal end of humerus

125

Intercostal Muscles

Deep muscles found between the ribs

125

External Intercostal Muscles

Raises the ribs when breathing in air

125

Internal Intercostal Muscles

Help lower the ribs while letting out air

125

Ilipsoas

-Prime mover of the hip flexion
-Keeps body upright