Nervous System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (147):
1

Cephal/o

Head

2

Cerebr/i or Cerebr/o

Cerebrum

3

Chem/o

Chemistry

4

Dendr/o

Tree-like

5

Encephal/o

Brain

6

Glio

Glue
Glue-like

7

Gloss/o

Tongue

8

Hemi

Half

9

Mening/o

Meninges

10

Myel/o

Myelin sheath of fibers

11

Neur/i or Neur/o

Nerve
Nerve tissue

12

Polio

Grey matter

13

-tome

Section
Part

14

Central nervous system(CNS)

The brain and spinal cord

15

Peripheral nervous system(PNS)

All neural tissue outside the central nervous system

16

Somatic nervous system(SNS)

Division of the PNS that controls skeletal muscle contractions

17

Automatic nervous system(ANS)

Division of the PNS that is controlled subconsciously

18

Sympathetic nervous system(TNS)

Division of the ANS involved in the "fight-or-flight" response
(Thoracolumbar nervous system)

19

Parasympathetic nervous system

Division of the ANS involved in the "rest-and-digest" response
(Craniosacral nervous system)

20

Sensory function

Using receptors to detect changes and respond in order to maintain homeostasis

21

Special senses

The five senses of olfaction gustation, vision equilibrium, and hearing

22

Neurons

Nerve cells that send and receive nerve impulses

23

Cell body

The main part of a neuron

24

Axon

Nerve cell extension that carries impulses away from the cell body

25

Dentrities

Branched nerve extensions that carry impulses towards the cell body

26

Myelin

White, fatty substance that forms an insulating sheath around axons

27

Synapses

Sites when adjacent neurons communicate

28

Neurotransmitters

Chemical messengers between neurons or between neurons and muscles

29

Neuroglia

Supporting cells of the CNS and PNS

30

White matter

Regions in the CNS dominated by the myelinated axons

31

Gray matter

Regions in the CNS dominated by cell bodies, neurolgia, and unmyelinated axons

32

Central canal

Passageway in the spinal cord that contains cerebrospinal fluid

33

Cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)

Liquid that bathes the internal and external surfaces of the CNS

34

Cauda equina

Group of spinal nerves that resembles a horse's tail extending below the distal end of the spinal cord

35

Plexus

Spinal nerve network

36

Dermatome

Area of skin supplied by a single pair of spinal nerves

37

Cerebrum

Largest portion of the brain that functions in reasoning, learning, sensory perception, and emotions

38

Cerebral hemispheres

Two symmetrical halves of the cerebrum

39

Corpus Callosum

Broad band of white matter connecting the cerebral hemispheres

40

Cerebral cortex

Outer layer of the cerebrum

41

Gyri

Elevated ridges o the brain surface

42

Sulci

Shallow depressions in the brain surface

43

Fissures

Deep grooves in the brain that separate Gyri

44

Cerebellum

Second largest region of the brain that functions to coordinate skeletal muscle activity and to maintain balance

45

Brainstem

Brain part remaining outside the cerebrum and cerebellum consisting of the midbrain, pens, medulla oblongata

46

Diencephalon

Brain part that contains the thalamus and hypothalamus and is the link between that cerebral hemisphere and the brainstem

47

Thalamus

Brain part that serves as a central relay station for incoming sensory impulses

48

Hupothalamus

Brain part that plays a role in homeostasis such as regulating body temperature and releasing hormones

49

Midbrain

Part of the brainstem that houses reflex centers associated with eye and head movements

50

Pons

Portion of the brainstem between the medulla and midbrain that serves as a relay station from the peripheral nerves to the brain

51

Medulla oblongata

Enlarged continuation of the spinal cord that contains important rep fez centers for the heart, blood vessels, and breathing

52

Meninges

Three membrane layers covering the brain and spinal column

53

Astro

Star-like

54

Dura mater

Tough, outermost membrane thy covers the brain and spinal cord

55

Arachnoid mater

Middle membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord

56

Pia mater

Delicate, innermost membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord

57

Epidural space

Space between the overlying bone and dura mater

58

Subdural space

Space between the dura mater and arachnoid mater

59

Subarachnoid space

Space between the arachnoid mater and pia mater, filled with CSF

60

Ventricles

4 fluid filled chambers in the brain

61

Cranial nerves

12 pairs of peripheral nerves originating at the brain that connect to the brain but not the spinal cord

62

Cephalalgia

Pain in the head; headache

63

Electroencephalograph (EEG)

Method of graphically recording the electrical activity in the brain

64

Computed tomography (CT)

Imaging method that uses a computer to reconstruct the anatomical features obtained by X-ray

65

Migraine

Recurrent, severe vascular headache

66

Photophobia

Eye sensitivity to light

67

Aura

Distinctive sensation that signals the onset of a migraine

68

Antiemetic

Agent for preventing/relieving vomiting

69

Concussion

Immediate loss of consciousness, orientation, or memory caused by head injury

70

Amnesia

Loss of memory

71

Coma

Prolonged state of deep unconsciousness

72

Glasgow coma scale (GCS)

Scale used to asses the level of consciousness

73

Brain contusion

Brain tissue bruise

74

Paresis

Muscle weakness or slight paralysis

75

Hemiparesis

Muscle weakness or paralysis on one side

76

Epilepsy

Brain disorder resulting from an irregular electrical discharge as neurons

77

Cerebral seizures

Recurrent convulsions with blank stares and temporary loss of awareness

78

Generalized tonic-chronic seizure

Seizure characterized by collapse, loss consciousness, and intermittent muscle contractions and relaxations

79

Parkinson's disease (PD)

Disorder resulting from progressive degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in the brain

80

Transient ischemic

Brain disorder that's not permanent resulting from blood flow interruption

81

Stroke

Destruction of brain tissue due to the disruption of blood flow to a particular brain region

82

What are all the names for a stroke?

-cerebrovascular accident
-stroke
-brain attack

83

Dysphasia

Difficulty in speaking and understanding written or spoken language as a result of brain injury

84

Cerebral angiography

Mapping of the cerebral blood vessels using dye and x-rays

85

Tissue plasminogenactivor (TPA or tPA)

Substance that dissolves blood clots

86

Dementia

Loss of intellectual and cognitive functions while other brain functions are maintained

87

Alzheimer's disease (AD)

Degenerative brain disorder that causes a disabling dementia with an onset typically later in life

88

Huntington chorea

Inherited form of dementia, comes with atrophy of particular brain regions
(Huntington disease)

89

Glioma

Tumors composed of cells derived from neuroglia

90

Astrocytoma

Tumor derived from astrocytes

91

Oligodendroglioma

Tumor derived from oligodendrocytes

92

Ependymoma

Tumor derived from ependymal cells

93

Cerebral palsy (CP)

Group of motor function diseases present t birth or in infancy that may be the result of interrupted blood flow to the brain during fetal development, childbirth, or infancy

94

Reye syndrome

Complex of symptoms with liver damage and brain dysfunction that occurs after a viral infection; has been linked to aspirin use

95

Bell palsy

Paralysis of the muscles on one side of the face innervated by the facial nerve

96

Trigemial neuralgia

Condition characterized by pain in parts of the face served by one or more branches of the trigemial nerve
Tic douloureux

97

Sequela

Disorder that is caused by a preceding disorder in the same person

98

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

Fatal degenerative disease of the motor neurons marked by muscle weakness and atrophy
(Lou Gehrig disease)

99

Multiple sclerosis (MS)

Autoimmune disorder that causes destruction of the myelin sheaths of neurons

100

Vertigo

The sensation dizziness while not moving that causes loss of balance

101

Sciatica

Pain in the lower back that radiates from the back of the thigh and down the leg

102

Spina bifida

Congenital defect of incomplete vertebral closure that allows the spinal cord or meninges to protrude

103

Spina bifida occulta

Incomplete fusion of the posterior arch of vertebrae

104

Meningocele

Protrusion of the meninges through bone, forming a CSF-filled cyst

105

Hydrocephalus

Accumulation of CSF on the brain
"Water on the brain"

106

Encephalitis

Brain inflammation

107

Lumbar puncture

Procedure using a needle inserted into the subarachnoid space of the lumbar region to remove CSF
(Spinal tap)

108

Guillain-Barré syndrome

Acute symmetrical lower motor neuron paralysis of unknown cause

109

Meningitis

Inflammation of the meninges

110

Nuchal rigidity

Stiffness of the neck and impaired neck flexion as a result of a meningeal irritation

111

Poliomyelitis

Severe infectious viral disease that inflames the gray matter of the spinal cord and sometimes leads to paralysis and muscle wasting
(Polio)

112

What is the CNS protected by?

-Meninges
-Cerebrospinal fluid
-Bones of the cranium and spinal column

113

What it the PNS made of?

Spinal nerves(31 pairs) extending from the spinal cord and cranial nerves(12 pairs) which extend down from the brain

114

What is the SNS made up of?

Ganglia on either side of the spinal cord which is divided in two parts/systems

115

Which is system is at the very top of the spinal cord?

PNS

116

Which system is at the bottom of the spinal cord?

ANS

117

What are the three layers of meninges (listed from outermost to innermost)

Dura mater
Arachnoid mater
Pia mater

118

Where is cerebrospinal fluid housed?

Arachnoid mater

119

Which layer of meninges carries rich supply of blood to the brain?

Pia mater

120

Brain begins to form on the ______ end of the tube ______ after contraception

Anterior
Four weeks

121

How many fists makes a mass that's the same size of an adult brain?

Two

122

What does the brain feel like

Cold oatmeal

123

How does the adult brain weigh?

Little more than three pounds

124

How is the brain commonly discussed?

Four regions

125

What are all the structures of the brain?

Brain
Sensory organs
Spinal cord
Nerves

126

Olfactory nerves

Deals with smell (bring impulses from nose to brain)

127

Afferent nerves

Sensory nerves that carry impulses to the CNS from sensory receptors

128

Efferent nerves

Sensory nerves that carry impulses to the body from CNS

129

Optic nerves

Brings impulses from eyes to the brain

130

Oculomotor

Sends motor impulses to some external and internal eye muscles

131

Trochlear

Sends motor impulses to one external muscle of each eye

132

Trigeminal nerve

These can be divided into three branches; eyes, forehead, upper and lower jaw

133

Abducens

Stimulate the muscle that turns the eyes to the side

134

Facial nerve

Stimulate muscles, salivary glands, lacrimal glands, and the sensation of taste on the anterior 2/3 of the tongue

135

Acoustic nerve

These nerves can be divided into two branches, concerned w/ hearing and balance

136

Glossopharyngeal nerve

Stimulate the partoid glands, the sense of taste on the posterior 1/2 of the tongue and part of pharynx

137

PLF
(not actually medical acronym it's only for the notecards)

Pathology, Location, Functions

138

PLF of Phrenic nerves

P: Respiratory paralysis

L: Cervical C1-C4

F: Diaphragm and muscles of the shoulder and neck

139

PLF of Axillary nerves

P: Paralysis and atrophy

L: Brachial C5-C7

F: Deltoid

140

PLF of radial nerves

P: Wrist drop

L: Brachial C5-C7

F: triceps and extensor of the forearms

141

PLF of median nerves

P: Inability to pick of small objects

L: Brachial C5-C7

F: Flexor muscles of the arm and some hand muscles

142

PLF of ulnar nerves

P: Claw hand

L: Brachial C5-C7

F: Wrist and many hand muscles

143

PLF of femoral nerves

P: Inability to extend leg and flex hip

L: Lumbar L1-L4

F: Lower abdomen, buttocks, and thighs

144

PLF of sciatic nerves

P: Inability to extend hip and flex knee. If other nerves in this plexus are effected, foot drop and shuffling gait may occur

L: Sacral L4-L5, S1-S4

F: Lower trunk and posterior surface of thigh and leg

145

Vagus

Stimulate part of the pharynx, larynx, vocal cords and parts of the thoracic and abdominal viscera

146

Spinal accessory

Stimulate the shoulder muscles

147

Hypoglossal

Stimulate the muscles concerned with movements of the tongue