Flashcards in Energy and Metabolism Deck (30):
What is the 1st law of thermodynamics?
Energy is transformed, not created or destroyed.
Energy is converted into what?
What is oxidation?
Loss of electrons
What is reduction?
Gain of electrons
How can we move energy?
By redox reactions
A+B----> A(+) + B(-)
A is being oxidized (loses e-)
A is being reduced (accepts e-)
A reaction requiring an input of energy
Endergonic (+delta G)
A reaction that releases free energy
Exergonic (-delta G)
A minimum amount of energy is required to initiate a reaction.
Activation energy (Ea)
What occurs at Ea?
Destabilization of existing chemical bonds
What is required even for spontaneeous (exergonic) reaction?
What are metabolic pathways?
Series of chemical reactions occurring in sequence within a cell
What can the pathways look like?
Give 2 advantages of Metabolic pathways.
Small steps more manageable requires less energy)
Use one resource for several pathways (conserve matter and energy)
What does an anabolic chemical reaction require to initiate progress in a reaction?
Input of cellular energy (ATP)
What retains energy in the bonds between phosphates?
When the bond between P-P is broken, energy is released. The product is then _____
ADP (adenosine diphosphate) + Pi (inorganic phosphate)
The terminal phosphate group leaves ATP and bonds to a substrate energizing it thus causing a shape change.
The substrate accepting the phosphate is said to be______
When the phosphate group leaves the substrate, the shape changes again, and in so doing, work is done.
It demonstrates the effect of the shape change.
The motor protein of myosin in muscle cells
How does ATP do work?
By causing molecules to undergo a shape change
ATP is made in the presence of what?
ADP and a phosphorylated substrate
ATP is made during what?
rearrangement of a substrate
Making ATP steps
-Substrate level phosphorylation
Biochemical reaction often occur in ___.
A reaction that releases energy (catabolic - usually exothermic) will be
“coupled” or associated with a reaction that requires energy (anabolic – usually endothermic)
Energy released from an catabolic (or exothermic) reaction can drive what?
ATP formation too
The ATP generated by energy coupling is used to drive what?