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Flashcards in Respiration Pathways Deck (125):
1

Concert of molecules working together small, stepwise reactions in a specific sequence

Pathways

2

Anabolic and catabolic reactions sum up all reactions needed to maintain life

Pathways

3

Energy is needed to drive endergonic reactions

Pathways

4

An organic 6-carbon molecule

Glucose

5

The process of extracting energy from organic molecules (like glucose)

Aerobic respiration

6

C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O ---> 6CO2 + 12H2O + ATP

Aerobic respiration breaks down the sugar

7

Organic carbon returns to its inorganic form

C6H12O6 is oxidized to 6CO2

8

Purpose of respiration ?

to gradually release the energy tied up in the bonds of glucose

9

What does aerobic require?

Oxygen

10

What consists aerobic respiration?

4 or 5 smaller pathways

11

It completely oxidizes glucose to capture cellular energy (ATP)

Aerobic respiration

12

It occurs in organisms requiring oxygen to survive

Aerobic

13

It occurs in the mitochondrion

Aerobic

14

What is the name of the inner mitochondrion membrane?

Cristae

15

What is the name of the inner compartment of the mitochondrion?

Matrix

16

It transfers energy

Respiration

17

It occurs in cells having mitochondria

Respiration

18

This type of respiration is exergonic

Aerobic

*The overall breakdown of glucose molecules is exergonic (releases energy)

19

When energy is released, oxidation reduction reactions do.... (2 things)

-shuffle electrons around with the help of coenzymes FAD and NAD+
-produced ATP

20

ATP is produced by.. (2 things)

-substrate-level-phosphorylation
-chemiosmosis

21

Energy potential of coenzymes used to make ATP... (2)

-NAD+ (oxidized form) or NADH (reduced) will provide energy to make 3 ATPs
-FAD (oxidized form) or FADH2 (reduced form) will provide energy to make 2 ATPs

22

Critical factor for the maintenance of respiration.

The reaction is reversible, coenzymes are recycled
NAD+ NADH + H+
FAD FADH2

23

What binds to NAD+ and the substrate?

Enzymes that use NAD+ as a cofactor for oxidation reactions

24

What is binding to the enzymes that use NAD+ as a cofactor for oxidation reactions?

NAD+ and the substrate

25

2 electrons and a proton are transferred to NAD+, forming NADH. A second proton is donated to the solution.

Oxidation-reduction reaction

26

What happens in an oxidation-reduction reaction?

2 electrons and a proton are transferred to NAD+ forming NADH. A second electron is donated to the solution.

27

3 steps of oxidation?

1-Enzymes bind NAD+ and the susbtrate
2-2 electrons and a proton are transferred to NAD+ froming NADH and a second proton is donated to the solution
3-NADH diffuses away and can then donate electrons to other molecules.

28

What are the 5 pathways of aerobic respiration?

-Glycolysis
-Pyruvate oxidation
-Krebs cycle
-Electron transport chain
-Chemiosmosis (oxidative phosphorylation)

29

How many pathways make up the process of respiration?

5 small (1 in the cytoplasm and 4 in the mitochondrion)

30

What pathway occurs inthe cytoplasm?

Glycolysis

31

Where does pyruvate oxidation occur?

Mitochondiral inner membrane

32

How are the electrons transported to the electron transport chain?

via NADH

33

What is the citric acid cycle?

Krebs cycle

34

Why can't glycolysis occur in the mitochondrion?

Too big to enter

35

Where do the electrons come from to feed the ETC?

Glycolysis
Conversion of Pyruvate
Many from Krebs

36

Does it take oxygen for glycolysis to occur?

It occurs with or without O2

37

Glycolysis occurs in 3 phases... What are they?

1- energy investment (need 2 ATP)
2- cleavage into 2-3 C molecules (2 G3P)
3- energy producing (makes 4 ATP)

38

What are the three conditions for glycolysis?

NAD+ must be present
Doesn't need oxygen
Occurs in cytoplasm

39

What will NADH do?

Transfer electrons to ETC and it has the potential to make 3 ATPs

40

In the first glycolysis phase (energy investment), what happens to glucose?

Priming glucose: glucose is phosphorylated at both ends using 2 ATPs

41

In the second glycolysis phase (cleavage), what happens to the sugar?

The sugar is split into 2 3-carbon sugars called G3P

42

What are G3P?

when sugar is split into 2 * 3-carbon sugars

43

Into what is the G3P converted?

Into 2 pyruvate

44

In the third glycolysis phase (energy acquisition), energy is harvested by what?

Substrate-level-phosphorylation

45

What is substrate-level-phosphorylation?

ADP picks up phosphate from sugar producing 4 ATP

46

What are the glycolysis products per glucose?

2 pyruvate, 2 net ATP, 2 NADH

*NO CO2 IS RELEASED

47

What happens to pyruvate when there is a presence of oxygen?

It will move into the mitochondrion to undergo aerobic respiration

48

What happens to pyruvate when there is NO presence of oxygen?

It will ferment in the cytoplasm by fermentation (a form of anaerobic respiration)

49

When no oxygen, what happens?

cell runs out of oxygen and shuts down mitochondria

50

Where does oxidation of pyruvate occur?

inner mitochondrial membrane in eukaryotess

51

What does pyruvate do during oxidization? (3 things)

Converts 3-C pyrhuvate to 2-C acetyl
Produces 1 NADH for every pyruvate
First 2 CO2 are released from original glucose (1 per pyruvate)

52

What are the products per pyruvate?

1 CO2 given off as waste
1 NADH will make ATP in ETC
1 acetyl-CoA

*per glucose means multiply all by 2

53

What is the ratio of by pyruvate products and by glucose products?

Per glucose: multiply all pyruvate products by 2

54

Where does the Krebs cycle occur?

Matrix of mitochondria

55

This cycle completes glucose oxidation.

Krebs cycle

56

What does the Krebs cycle produce per pyruvate?

3 NADH
1 FADH2
1 ATP

57

What does the Krebs cycle release per pyruvate?

2 CO2

58

After glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, and the Krebs cycle, glucose has been oxidized to what?

4 ATP
10 NADH (go to ETC)
2 FADH2 (go to ETC)
6 CO2 per glucose is given off as waste

59

What is the electron transport chain (ETC)?

A series of membrane-bound electron carriers

60

Where is located the ETC?

in the cristae of eukaryotic cells

61

What does the ETC?

Pumps hydrogen ions into inner membrane space and accepts electrons from NADH and FADH2

62

From which phases is CO2 released?

fermentation
pyruvate oxidation
krebs cycle

63

Is there any CO2 coming off of glycolysis?

NO

64

What is recycled by the krebs cycle?

Oxaloacetate

65

What does ETC need as the final electron acceptor?

Oxygen (O2)

66

What is the difference between net and total?

Net: cell benefits 2 ATP
Total: 4 ATP made

67

What is the energy used to pumps H+ across the membrane?

Electron energy that got lost with each transfer of electrons

68

What is established in the intermembrane space?

Proton H+ gradient

69

What type of reaction is Cellular Respiration?

Exergonic

70

Is cellular respiration aerobic or anaerobic?

Aerobic

71

What gas does cellular respiration consume? What gas does it send out as waste?

Consumes oxygen
Sends out carbon dioxide

72

Where does cellular respiration occur?

Mitochondrion

73

What is the chemical equation for Cellular Respiration?

C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂→ 6CO₂ + 6H₂O + heat + ATP

74

What is the function of cellular respiration?

Breaks down glucose molecules and stores that energy in ATP

75

Roughly how many ATP are made in the process of cellular respiration (per molecule of glucose)?

38

76

How much energy from ATP is lost as heat?

40%

77

How much energy from ATP is used for body maintenance?

75%

78

Is oxidation a loss or gain of electrons?

Loss

79

Is reduction a loss or gain of electrons?

Gain

80

Name the enzyme that is involved in the regulation of redox reactions.

Dehydrogenase

81

What is the second stage of cellular respiration?

Citric Acid Cycle or Krebs Cycle

82

Where does citric acid cycle take place?

Matrix

83

What is the third stage of cellular respiration?

Oxidative Phosphorylation (ETC)

84

What is the main function of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle?

to supply Oxidative Phosphorylation with electrons

85

The cell transfers energy by shuttling _____ from molecule to molecule.

Electrons

86

Energy released in the electron transport chain is used to pump ______ ions across a membrane.

hydrogen

87

ATP is made by adding ______ to an inorganic phosphate.

ADP

88

Oxidative ________ involved an electron transport chain and a process called chemiosmosis.

Phosphorylation

89

A sequence of electron carriers forms the electron ______ chain.

Transport

90

_______ is the loss of an electron.

Oxidation

91

A molecule such as glucose is oxidized when it ______ an electron

Loses

92

_______ is short for "oxidation-reduction"

Redox

93

Oxygen is ________ in cellular respiration.

Reduced

94

A coenzyme called ______ is used to carry electrons in redox reactions.

NAD⁺

95

Most cells make most of their ATP via a process that involves an electron transport chain and a process called ______.

Chemiosmosis

96

A ______ enzyme strips hydrogen atoms from organic molecules.

Dehydrogenase

97

ATP ______ are protein complexes hat use energy from a gradient of ion concentration to make ATP.

Synthesis

98

NADH delivers electrons to an electron ______ at the beginning of the electron transport chain.

Carrier

99

Glucose is _______ in cellular respiration.

Oxidized

100

NAD⁺ picks up electrons and hydrogen, forming _______.

NADH

101

Steps in glycolysis that produce ATP and Pyruvate.

Energy payoff phase

102

Reduced as glucose is oxidized.

NAD⁺

103

The steps in glycolysis that consume energy.

Preparatory phase

104

"Splitting of sugar"

Glycolysis

105

When an enzyme transfers a phosphate from a substrate to ADP.

Substrate-level phosphorylation

106

This is not involved in glycolysis.

Oxygen

107

Fermentation enables cells to make ATP in the absence of ______

Oxygen

108

For every molecule of glucose consumed, glycolysis produces two molecules of pyruvic acid, two molecules of ATP, and two molecules of ______.

NADH

109

What are the waste products of Alcohol Fermentation?

Ethanol & carbon dioxide & NAD+

110

How many ATP does fermentation make?

2

111

This causes muscle fatigue and sorenese.

Lactic acid

112

Most* protons diffuse into the matrix through

ATP synthase

113

A membrane-bound enzyme that uses the energy of the proton gradient to synthesize ATP from ADP + Pi

ATP synthase

114

In theory, 38 ATP per glucose for _____

Bacteria

115

In theory, 36 ATP per glucose for _____

Eukaryotes

116

Regulation of respiration is by ____.

Feedback inhibition

117

In Aerobic respiration in mito: final electron receptor is _______.

Oxygen

118

In Fermentation in cytoplasm: final electron acceptor is an organic molecule like ____ and _____.

Acetaldehyde
Pyruvate

119

It regenerates NAD+ by reducing organic molecules in the cytoplasm.

Fermentation

120

Glycolysis NEEDS ___.

NAD+

121

What happens with electrons during lactic acid fermentation?

They are transferred from NADH to pyruvate to produce lactic acid

122

Amino acid is ______ to remove the amino group.

Deaminated

123

Amino acid is deaminated to remove the amino group and the remainder is converted to a molecule that enters glycolysis or the KRebs cyle. What is the type of reaction?

Catabolic reaction of proteins

124

Fats are broken down to fatty acids and glycerol. Fatty acids are converted to acetyl groups by b-oxidation. What is the type of reaction?

Catabolic reaction of fats

125

What prepares fat for Krebs Cycle?

Oxidation of neutral fat