Flashcards in General Biology II Deck (40):
What are the properties of life? (7)
- 1. are composed of cells
- 2. are complex and ordered*
- 3. obtain and use energy *
- 4. respond to their environment
- 5. maintain internal balance or homeostasis*
- 6. can grow and reproduce
- 7. evolutionary adaptation
What are emergent properties?
- New properties present at one level that are not seen in the previous level.
What is the hierarchy of the organization of life?
- Molecules, Organelles, Cells, Tissues, Organs, Community (MOCTOC)
What are the unifying themes in Biology?
- 1. Cell theory
- 2. Molecular basis of inheritance
- 3. Cells are information processing systems
- 4. Evolutionary conservation
- 5. Evolutionary change
- 6. Structure and Function are related
- 7. Emergent properties arise
What are the 6 common most elements in all organisms?
- Nitrogen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorous, Sulfur (N CHOPS)
What are their macromolecules?
-Fats, lipids, membranes
Where do the cells get their energy from?
Give 2 examples of carbohydrate.
Where do grazing animals get their energy from?
Where do cells store their energy?
What are lipids used to form?
Animals have what type of fats?
Plants have what type of fats?
What are fats and oils?
With what do cells build themselves?
What are proteins made of?
How are amino acids linked?
With what do cells build genetic codes?
What are nucleic acids made of?
What do nucleotides contain?
Name 2 nucleic acids.
What are functional groups?
They are responsible for giving specific reactive properties enabling reactions between molecules during metabolism.
Hydroxyl Group (found in carbohydrates, proteins, nucleid acids, lipids)
Carbonyl Group found in carbohydrates and nucleic acids (Ketones)
C=O (+H bond to C)
Carbonyl Group found in carbohydrates and nucleic acids (Aldehydes)
Amino Group (found in proteins, nucleic acids)
C=O (+OH bond to C) (COOH)
Carboxyl Group (found in proteins, lipids)
Methyl (found in proteins)
Sulfhydryl (found in proteins)
P (bond to 4 O)
Phosphate (found in nucleic acids)
Why is water essential to functional groups?
They require an aqueous environment in order to react with other functional groups.
Water is needed to.. (2 things)
-Break down (water is added) molecules as in Catabolic processes (digestion, respiration)
-Build molecules (water is removed) as in Anabolic process (photosynthesis)
Is water polar or non polar?
Give the 5 properties of water.
1- Liquid at room T
2- Good solvent (dissociate to form ions)
3- Cohesive & adhesive
4- High specific heat (takes lots of energy to raise or lower its temperature)
5- High heat of vaporization
Name the 4 categories of biological molecules.
What are complex organic molecules made out of?
-Carbon & hydrogen backbones
-Functional groups (bonded to backbones
What is the process to make molecules?
Dehydration synthesis /condensation reaction (ANABOLIC REACTION) by the removal of water
What is the process to break molecules?
Hydrolysis (CATABOLIC REACTION) by the addition of water (polymers are broken down to monomers)
What type of reaction is dehydration synthesis/condensation reaction?