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Flashcards in General Biology II Deck (40):
1

What are the properties of life? (7)

Living organisms:
- 1. are composed of cells
- 2. are complex and ordered*
- 3. obtain and use energy *
- 4. respond to their environment
- 5. maintain internal balance or homeostasis*
- 6. can grow and reproduce
- 7. evolutionary adaptation

2

What are emergent properties?

- New properties present at one level that are not seen in the previous level.

3

What is the hierarchy of the organization of life?

- Molecules, Organelles, Cells, Tissues, Organs, Community (MOCTOC)

4

What are the unifying themes in Biology?

- 1. Cell theory
- 2. Molecular basis of inheritance
- 3. Cells are information processing systems
- 4. Evolutionary conservation
- 5. Evolutionary change
- 6. Structure and Function are related
- 7. Emergent properties arise

5

What are the 6 common most elements in all organisms?

- Nitrogen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorous, Sulfur (N CHOPS)

6

What are their macromolecules?
-Sugars
-Fatty acids
-Amino acids
-Nucleotides

-Polysaccharides
-Fats, lipids, membranes
-Proteins
-Nucleic acids

7

Where do the cells get their energy from?

Carbohydrates

8

Give 2 examples of carbohydrate.

Sugars
Starch

9

Where do grazing animals get their energy from?

Cellulose

10

Where do cells store their energy?

Lipids

11

What are lipids used to form?

Membranes

12

Animals have what type of fats?

Saturated fats

13

Plants have what type of fats?

Unsaturated fats

14

What are fats and oils?

Lipids

15

With what do cells build themselves?

Proteins

16

What are proteins made of?

Amino acids

17

How are amino acids linked?

Peptide bonds

18

With what do cells build genetic codes?

Nucleic acids

19

What are nucleic acids made of?

Nucleotides

20

What do nucleotides contain?

Bases
Pentose sugars

21

Name 2 nucleic acids.

DNA
RNA

22

What are functional groups?

They are responsible for giving specific reactive properties enabling reactions between molecules during metabolism.

23

-OH

Hydroxyl Group (found in carbohydrates, proteins, nucleid acids, lipids)

24

C=O

Carbonyl Group found in carbohydrates and nucleic acids (Ketones)

25

C=O (+H bond to C)

Carbonyl Group found in carbohydrates and nucleic acids (Aldehydes)

26

NH2

Amino Group (found in proteins, nucleic acids)

27

C=O (+OH bond to C) (COOH)

Carboxyl Group (found in proteins, lipids)

28

CH3

Methyl (found in proteins)

29

-S-H

Sulfhydryl (found in proteins)

30

P (bond to 4 O)

Phosphate (found in nucleic acids)

31

Why is water essential to functional groups?

They require an aqueous environment in order to react with other functional groups.

32

Water is needed to.. (2 things)

-Break down (water is added) molecules as in Catabolic processes (digestion, respiration)
-Build molecules (water is removed) as in Anabolic process (photosynthesis)

33

Is water polar or non polar?

Polar

34

Give the 5 properties of water.

1- Liquid at room T
2- Good solvent (dissociate to form ions)
3- Cohesive & adhesive
4- High specific heat (takes lots of energy to raise or lower its temperature)
5- High heat of vaporization

35

Name the 4 categories of biological molecules.

-Proteins
-Nucleic acids
-Lipids
-Carbs

36

What are complex organic molecules made out of?

-Carbon & hydrogen backbones
-Functional groups (bonded to backbones

37

What is the process to make molecules?

Dehydration synthesis /condensation reaction (ANABOLIC REACTION) by the removal of water

38

What is the process to break molecules?

Hydrolysis (CATABOLIC REACTION) by the addition of water (polymers are broken down to monomers)

39

What type of reaction is dehydration synthesis/condensation reaction?

Anabolic

40

What type of reaction is hydrolysis?

Catabolic