Flashcards in Engine Deck (94):
What engines are on the aircraft?
General Electric CF-34-8E5
- Hi bypass, 2-spool, axial-flow, turbofan
What thrust does the MAX position of the thrust levers provide?
The max thrust rating available for dual or single engine
How much thrust do the engines produce?
How must thrust is available for GA and GA RSV?
TO1, OEI with ATTCS provides what thrust?
The T/O DATASET menu setting only applies to what?
The takeoff mode of flight only
Describe the N1 spool
-Single stage fan
- 4 stage LP turbine
Describe the N2 spool
-10 stage compressor (gas generator)
- 2 stage HP turbine
How many igniters per engine, are what is the power source?
2 per engine, PMA
How many igniters activate for engine start?
Ground - 1 igniter (switch in AUTO)
Flight - 2 igniters (switch in AUTO)
What happens when the ignition switch is selected to OVRD?
Enables FADEC to activate both exciters when engines are running (ground and flight)
Can the igniters be turned off in flight?
- The switch may be moved to the OFF position but the FADEC disregards the command
- The OFF position is used for dry motoring on the ground only. It deactivates the ignition system
What are the four ignition indications?
A, B, AB (green) and Off (cyan)
What are the green and amber engine vibration ranges
Green 0 to 3.9
Amber 4.0 to 5.0
What is a normal engine oil indication?
Green (amber is cautionary)
How is N2 indicated on the EICAS?
A digital display beneath the ITT
What does the STOP position of the START/STOP switch do?
Commands the FADEC to shut down the engine provided the thrust lever is idle
What does the OFF position of the IGNITION selector knob do in flight? on the ground?
Deactivates the ignition system. FADEC disregards the OFF position in flight
With an SPDA failure, setting the ignition selector to OVRD energizes which igniter?
What controls the engine?
- A two channel FADEC
- One channel is active and the other is automatic backup
What does FADEC stand for?
Full Authority Digital Electronic Control
What controls engine starting and provides hung start, hot start, and no light-off protection?
Is only one FADEC channel used every flight?
Yes, they alternate with each engine start
What protections does FADEC provide on the ground?
- Hot start
- Hung start
- No light-off
Is there protection for hot starts or hung starts during an inflight start?
No, the FADEC will initiate fuel flow if the engine does not reach 20% N2 after 15 secs
How are engine thrust ratings controlled?
The FADEC has four idle modes, what are they?
Flight, approach, final approach and ground
What is flight idle?
minimum required thrust to provide min engine bleed to airplane and varies with altitude and other system requirements
What is approach idle and when is it possible?
- Allow rapid acceleration to GA
- Weight off wheels, flaps not up or gear down, altitude below 15,000'
When is final approach idle set?
Same as approach idle except altitude is below 1200'. The FADEC considers anti ice OFF regardless of actual status
Where can the crew check engine oil?
on the MFD STATUS page
What does the oil system lubricate and cool?
The turbine engine main shaft bearings and the accessory gearbox
What does the cyan line on the N1 gauge represent during approach? When does it appear?
Min thrust required to meet bleed requirements below 1200'
What does the cyan > bug mean when displayed on the N1 EICAS indicator?
How is the N1 limit indicated on the EICAS?
Its a red tick mark on the N1 indicator
The red line on the ITT indicates max allowable ITT. Is it indicated in flight?
After the T/O phase it is indicated only when the ITT does above CON thrust rating limit
What is ITT?
What sources are available for engine starting?
- Ground source (huffer cart or air bottle)
- Opposite engine
- Windmill start
Where is external air connected to the aircraft?
Lower section of the fairing area
Will the crew have any cockpit indications when external air is connected?
Duct pressure is shown on the STAUS page of the MFD
What will happen if the thrust levers are positioned between the thrust control quadrant detents?
Selects an intermediate thrust setting
When does the starter cut out happen?
What is the primary and backup power source for a FADEC?
After 50% N2 it is powered by a permanent magnet alternator. the backup is the aircraft electrical system
Does the FADEC provide engine start protection?
Only on the ground for a hot start, hung start or no light-off
What will the FADEC automatically do in case of a hot start?
- FADEC will not allow FF if ITT > 120 C
- FADEC will automatically dry motor the engine and introduce fuel when ITT
Describe the engine start sequence
Start switch momentarily to START:
- 7% N2
- 20% N2 FF
- 20% N2 + 5 secs light-off
- 50% N2 ignition off
Engine stabilizes 2-4-6
- N1 27%
- ITT 460 C
- N2 62%
- FF 550 lbs
- Oil pressure >25 psi
What does WML mean on the engine indications?
An engine has flamed out and the FADEC has automatically turned on both igniters and is attempting an auto relight
What provides underspend and overspeed protection
- The FADEC via the FMU
- Approximately 52% and 102% N2 respectively
Will the engine attempt to auto relight on the ground?
Ye but will stop when an engine rpm falls below starter cutout (50% N2)
When will FADEC shut down an engine?
When N2 reaches 102% in flight and on ground
If FADEC shuts down an engine due to overspeed protection will the FADEC command an auto relight in flight and on the ground?
What happens after 3 overspeed detection events within 30 seconds?
FADEC will no relight the engine
What heats the fuel and cools the engine oil?
Fuel/oil heat exchanger
What is ATTCS and what controls it?
- Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System
- Provides max thrust reverse (RSV) according to current rate previously selected via the MCDU on the T/O dataset page
- FADEC controlled
What will trigger an ATTCS event?
- N1 difference > 15%
- Engine failure during TOGA
- Windshear detected
What indications would you see when the ATTS has been activated?
The green ATTCS indication on the EICAS disappears and the cyan thrust mode will be displayed
If the ATTCS is ON will you get RSV with an engine failure or windshear on T/O in the TOGA position?
Yes, always (T/O RSV or GA RSV depending)
What is the default mode of ATTCS if no selection is made on the MCDU?
It defaults to ON
Even if ATTCS is selected OFF it will be armed automatically when?
During go-around mode
If the ATTCS is OFF will you get RSV with an engine failure or windshear on T/O in the TOGA position?
Will you get RSV when selecting MAX?
Yes, always (T/O RSV or GA RSV depending)
When is thrust reverse available?
Weight on wheels (ground use only)
The application of max reverse thrust is not permitted below what airspeed?
When is the thrust reverser displayed and what do the colors mean?
- Whenever TR is not stowed
- Green REV indicates deployed
- Amber REV indicates FAIL or in transit
- Red REV indicates discrepancy or inadvertent deployment
What position must the thrust levers be in to engage the thrust reverser trigger?
What provides the interlock function protect against inadvertent TR deployment and stowing?
What happens if a TR inadvertently deploys?
FADEC limits respective engine thrust to IDLE
If the thrust lever is placed in the MAX REV position and then released, it does what?
It is spring loaded back to the MIN REV position
Can you deploy the TRs on an engine that has failed on the landing roll?
Yes, up to 30 secs following the failure, then it is locked out
What happens to the TR within 30 secs after an engine INOP condition is detected?
The TR trigger cannot be released
Where would you set the TO thrust rate mode and TO temperature?
The T/O DATASET MENU on the MCDU
What engine thrust ratings may only be used for 5 mins?
- TO-RSV (TL beyond TOGA)
- GA (two engine)
- GA RSV (single engine or windshear)
How long is go-around mode limited to in the go around phase?
What will trigger an ATTCS event?
- N1 diff >15%
- One engine failure during TOGA
- Windshear is detected
What is FLEX?
Reduced takeoff thrust based on assumed temp (telling the FADEC that it is warmer than actual to reduce thrust)
Where is the assumed temp displayed>
On the EICAS right below the ATTCS display
How is the ATTCS system controlled?
Can the FLEX thrust be reduced lower the CLB thrust?
What controls the Fuel Metering Unit?
During normal engine start the FADEC opens and closes what?
The FADEC opens and closes the starter control valve
Explain in order the 4 main components of the engine? The 3 parts of the gas generator?
Engine: compressor, combustor, turbin, nozzle and generator
Generator: compressor, combustor, turbine
If STOP is selected and the thrust lever is not at IDLE what would happen?
The engine would not shut down and you would receive an associated IDG OFF message
If you turn the START/STOP to STOP in flight will the engine shut down?
Not until the thrust lever is at idle
If you turn the ignition to OFF in flight will the engine shut down>
No, FADEC disregards the ignition selector OFF position in flight
What action must be taken if the auto relight does not occur within 30 seconds?
The start should be manually terminated by moving START/STOP selector knob to STOP
How does the FADEC use the 2 igniters for an engine start on the ground?
The FADEC alternates the ignitors at each start
What is the only way to close the engine SOV?
Each TR half has how many hydraulic actuators?
What is the min bleed pressure to cross-bleed start an engine?
What are the starter cycle limits on the ground?
1st and 2nd start: 90 sec on, 10 secs off
3rd to 5th start: 90 sec on, 5 mins off
What are the EICAS engine limit display markings?
Red - max and min limits
Amber - caution range
Green - normal range
How does the FADEC recognize when a combustor flameout has occurred?
-N2 rate detection (rapid deceleration)
- N2 level detection (sub idle)
- IGNITION must be in auto mode,
FADEC has full authority control of the:
-Fuel metering unit
- Variable geometry control
- Operability bleed valve
- T2 sensor heat
- Thrust reverser actuation
- All engine start/stop functions
- Engine limits