Environmental Hazards and Human Health Flashcards Preview

Environmental Systems Pre-AP > Environmental Hazards and Human Health > Flashcards

Flashcards in Environmental Hazards and Human Health Deck (49):
1

What is bloodletting?

Bleeding a patient to restore the balance of the four humours

2

What are the four humours?

Blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile

3

What is water cure?

When icy cold water is applied to draw blood away from injured or infected organs

4

What is the Germ Theory of Disease?

The belief that some diseases are caused by microorganisms too small to see without magnification

5

What two discoveries stemmed from the germ theory?

Immunizations and antibiotics

6

What is a non-transmissible disease?

A disease not caused by living organisms that isn't contagious

7

What are a few examples of non-transmissible diseases?

Heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer's, and diabetes

8

What is an infectious disease?

A transmissible disease caused by living organisms

9

What percentage of the water on Earth is saline and freshwater?

97% saline
3% freshwater

10

What are the percentages of the three types of freshwater?

30% groundwater
69% frozen
1% surface water

11

How much water is on earth?

330 million cubic miles of water

12

Give an example of a disease caused by multicellular parasites

Tapeworms

13

Give an example of a disease caused by fungi

Ringworm

14

Give an example of a disease caused by Protozoa

Malaria

15

Give an example of a disease caused by bacteria

Food poisoning

16

Give an example of a disease caused by viruses

Common cold

17

Give an example of a disease caused by prion

Mad cow disease

18

What was the cause of the 1993 intestinal outbreak in Milwaukee?

Cryptosporidium

19

What is an emergent disease?

A disease not previously known that has re-emerged

20

What is the hypothesized origin of HIV?

Chimpanzees

21

What is the hypothesized origin of SARS?

Masked palm civet

22

What is the hypothesized origin of H1N1 influenza?

Swine farm in Mexico

23

What is the hypothesized origin of the Spanish flu of 1918?

A swine or avian source

24

In what type of climate is the malaria Protozoa most likely to be found?

Warmer, humid climates

25

Three strategies used to deal with malaria in the 1940's?

Applying massive amounts of pesticide to kill mosquitoes, treating infected individuals with antimalarial drugs to kill the protozoan parasite, and draining the wetland areas where mosquitoes breed

26

What is resistance?

The ability to survive after exposure

27

What type of diseases do antibiotics treat?

Diseases caused by bacteria

28

What are the five chemical regulating agencies?

CERCLA, CAA, RCRA, CWA, and SDWA

29

Why are bacteria able to evolve resistance more quickly than other organisms?

They reproduce quickly

30

What are the four misuses of antibiotics that encourage the development of resistance?

When antibiotics are prescribed for a viral infection, given when the person could recover fully without them, a person starts prescription but doesn't finish it, and antibiotics are used in animal agriculture

31

What does it mean if a substance is toxic?

It can cause permanent/temporary harm to a living organism

32

What are the effects of carcinogens?

Increase the risk of cancer

33

What are the effects of teratogens?

Cause birth defects in an unborn fetus

34

What are the effects of neurotoxins?

Disrupt the function of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves

35

What are the effects of hormone mimics?

Amplify the effects of hormones

36

What are the effects of hormone blockers?

They prevent natural hormones from attaching to their target organ

37

What is BPA?

Hormone mimic

38

What does toxicity measure?

How harmful a substance is to the health of a living organism

39

Any synthetic or natural chemical had the potential to cause harm if...

The level of exposure is high enough

40

Which type of solubility is more likely to lead to the accumulation of a toxin in the body?

Oil soluble toxins

41

What is chemical persistence?

When a chemical does not degrade easily

42

How does bioaccumulation work?

As the substance passes up a food chain, it accumulates at the higher levels

43

What does mortality tell you?

The percentage of the population killed by the dose

44

What does the LD50 tell you?

The dose of a chemical that will kill 50% of the population within a given time period

45

What is risk assessment?

Estimating the likeliness or severity of a specific hazard to human death

46

What is an acceptable risk with a high probability of exposure? Why is it acceptable?

Mercury; it has low severity

47

What is an acceptable risk with high severity? Why is it acceptable?

Nuclear power plant; low probability of exposure

48

What is the greatest cause of death in the U.S.? Lowest?

Heart disease; storm

49

What is the Miasma Theory of Disease?

The belief that diseases were caused by a poisonous vapor or mist filled with particles from decomposed matter