Evolution and Ecology Flashcards Preview

Environmental Systems Pre-AP > Evolution and Ecology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Evolution and Ecology Deck (31):
0

What is the study of interactions between living organisms and their surroundings?

Ecology

1

What is an individual living thing called?

Organism

2

What includes all members of a species that live in the same area at the same time?

Population

3

What is made up of all populations living and interacting in one area?

Biological community

4

What includes the biological community and its surrounding physical environment?

Ecosystem

5

What is the part of Earth that supports life, where all ecosystems are found?

Biosphere

6

What is the particular place where an organism can survive?

Habitat

7

What two factors define a habitat?

Temperature and precipitation

8

What is a factor that plays the greatest role in determining an organism's range?

Critical factor

9

Why do you die when your body temperature gets too high?

Heat causes proteins in the human body to denature so they don't work properly.

10

What are the three types of adaptations?

Physical, Behavioral, and Physiological

11

What adaptation revolves around structural differences in coloration, body shape, and musculature?

Physical adaptations

12

What adaptation involves migration and marking territory?

Behavioral adaptation

13

What adaptation includes skin tanning and occurs at the cell or tissue level in an organism?

Physiological adaptation

14

What are the small advantageous mutations that accumulate over countless generations known as?

Evolution

15

What is the process where individuals with better suited genes are going to survive and reproduce more successfully?

Natural selection

16

What is the primary source of the genetic variety behind natural selection and evolution?

Random mutations or changes in DNA

17

What are the three forms of evidence of evolution?

Physical similarities, comparing DNA, and vestigial structures

18

What are some examples of physical similarities?

Most animals have similar bones in their limbs

19

How does human DNA compare to that of chimpanzees and bonobos?

The DNA is 99% similar

20

What are vestigial structures?

Structures that still exist in the body but no longer serve a function

21

What advantage does Sickle-cell anemia provide?

It provides an immunity to malaria

22

Where is Sickle-cell anemia most common?

Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and India

23

How long has life existed on Earth?

3.6-3.8 billion years

24

What is it called when a population splits and becomes two different species?

Divergent speciation

25

What four factors favor natural selection and speciation?

Physiological stress, predation, competition, and sexual selection

26

When does physiological stress occur?

When inappropriate levels of a critical environmental factor are available.

27

What is it called when one organism is hunted and killed by another?

Predation

28

What is competition?

When multiple organisms attempt to use the same resources.

29

When does sexual selection occur?

When the female responds to specific behaviors or physical traits

30

What is it called when natural selection favors unrelated organisms to look similar?

Convergent speciation