Flashcards in Final Review Deck (59):
What does renewable mean?
Can be replenished within a human lifetime
What does nonrenewable mean?
A resource that replenishes extremely slowly
What does sustainable mean?
Able to be maintained indefinitely
What is unsustainable?
Unable to be maintained in definitely
What is the difference between biodegradable and nonbiodegradable?
Biodegradable items are broken down by bacteria over time, while nonbiodegradable items are unable to be broken down.
What are the effects of growing human population on Earth?
Depletion of resources and space, pollution and environmental degradation
What are anthropocentric and ecocentric?
"Human-centered" and "environment-centered"
What is meant by the "Tragedy of Commons"?
Short-term interest of individuals versus the long-term interests of civilization and the Earth itself
How is environmental science an interdisciplinary field?
It includes concepts and ideas from multiple fields of study, such as sciences, sociology, philosophy, and politics
Identify the components found in the atmosphere in order of highest concentration to lowest.
Nitrogen, Oxygen, Argon, trace gases
What is the formula for cellular respiration?
C₆H₁₂O₆ + O₂ → CO₂ + H₂O + energy
What is the formula for photosynthesis?
CO₂ + H₂O + energy → C₆H₁₂O₆ + O₂
What is a molecule?
The smallest unit of an element of compound
What is an organism?
An individual life form
What is a population?
A group of organisms living in the same place at the same time
What is a biological community?
Various species in a common location
What is an ecosystem?
The biotic and abiotic factors in an environment
What is the biosphere?
All living things on earth
What are density dependent factors?
Factors whose effects of dependent on population (disease)
What are density independent factor?
Factors with effects unrelated to population size (natural disasters)
What significance does location on the windward or leeward side of a mountain hold?
The windward side receives more rain, while the leeward side doesn't, causing it to be dry and desert-like
The saltiness of a body of water
The degree of heat present
Define dissolved oxygen.
The amount of oxygen in a body of water
Define euphotic zone.
Later in a body of water that receives enough light for photosynthesis
What is the benthic zone?
Later in a body of water that doesn't receive enough light for photosynthesis
What is turbidity?
The clarity of water
Describe temperature, oxygen concentration, water velocity, nutrient level, and salinity for the source of a river.
Cold, oxygen-rich, low in nutrients, low in salinity, and fast-moving
What's the difference between a swamp, marsh, and bog?
A swamp is a wetland with trees, a marsh is a wetland without, and a bog is a wetland characterized by plants that produce an acidic secretion
What are the benefits to wetlands?
Biodiversity, flood control, and water pollution control
Distinguish between coastal zone, benthic zone, open ocean, and tidal zone?
The coastal and tidal zones have lots of biodiversity and an abundance of sunlight, while the open ocean and benthic zones have less biodiversity.
What is the current human population?
7 billion people
Identify human population growth curves prior and post industrial revolution.
Before the industrial revolution, the growth curve was linear. After, it was exponential.
What is the formula for doubling time?
70/current % growth rate
Where is the majority of water found on earth?
What is the greatest source of freshwater on earth?
What accounts for the greatest anthropogenic use of water?
What are the goals of the "Clean Water Act"?
To restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation's waters
What are the goals of the "Safe Drinking Water Act"?
To protect the quality of drinking water in the U.S.
Why are CO₂, CH₄, H₂O, and NO significant?
They are greenhouse gases
Why are chlorofluorocarbons significant?
They destroy ozone
What are the effects of global warming on the hydrologic cycle?
What is the link between acid rain and soil pH?
The more acid rain, the lower the soil pH
What are the advantages and disadvantages of solar power?
It is clean and its modules require little maintenance, but it doesn't work in cold, cloudy areas
What are the advantages and disadvantages of hydroelectric power?
It's environmentally friendly, but expensive and impacts aquatic life
What are the advantages and disadvantages of wind power?
It doesn't cause air pollution and creates jobs, but require lots of wind
What are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy?
Clean and requires no fuel, but can't be harnessed everywhere.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power?
It's clean and sustainable, but have dangerous effects
What are the advantages and disadvantages of putting ethanol into fuel?
Ethanol is renewable and produces less CO₂ when burned, and can be grown, produced, and distributed locally. It also provides jobs. On the other hand, it's not suitable for use in cold temperatures and can cause a food shortage.
How is Brazil considered a leader when it comes to green cars?
Brazil has all its cars able to run on pure ethanol and give consumers the option to use ethanol. The first mass produced flex car was made in Brazil.
If an engine was 20% efficient, where would the remaining energy go when the engine was in use?
It would be released as heat
During what time period did most of the coal on earth form?
Carboniferous period; world was covered in swamps
What makes up the majority of the mass of fossil fuels?
Explain the general workings of a power plant.
The energy source spins a turbine.
What are oil, coal, and natural gas derived from?
Prehistoric plant fossils
How are bacterial infections treated?
Determine the most → least toxic substance, given its LD50 value.
The lower the LD50, the more toxic the substance
Why is veal paper in color than regular beef?
Because the calf from the veal was raised on a milk-based diet and lacks certain minerals (iron)