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Environmental Systems Pre-AP > Final Review > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Review Deck (59):
1

What does renewable mean?

Can be replenished within a human lifetime

2

What does nonrenewable mean?

A resource that replenishes extremely slowly

3

What does sustainable mean?

Able to be maintained indefinitely

4

What is unsustainable?

Unable to be maintained in definitely

5

What is the difference between biodegradable and nonbiodegradable?

Biodegradable items are broken down by bacteria over time, while nonbiodegradable items are unable to be broken down.

6

What are the effects of growing human population on Earth?

Depletion of resources and space, pollution and environmental degradation

7

What are anthropocentric and ecocentric?

"Human-centered" and "environment-centered"

8

What is meant by the "Tragedy of Commons"?

Short-term interest of individuals versus the long-term interests of civilization and the Earth itself

9

How is environmental science an interdisciplinary field?

It includes concepts and ideas from multiple fields of study, such as sciences, sociology, philosophy, and politics

10

Identify the components found in the atmosphere in order of highest concentration to lowest.

Nitrogen, Oxygen, Argon, trace gases

11

What is the formula for cellular respiration?

C₆H₁₂O₆ + O₂ → CO₂ + H₂O + energy

12

What is the formula for photosynthesis?

CO₂ + H₂O + energy → C₆H₁₂O₆ + O₂

13

What is a molecule?

The smallest unit of an element of compound

14

What is an organism?

An individual life form

15

What is a population?

A group of organisms living in the same place at the same time

16

What is a biological community?

Various species in a common location

17

What is an ecosystem?

The biotic and abiotic factors in an environment

18

What is the biosphere?

All living things on earth

19

What are density dependent factors?

Factors whose effects of dependent on population (disease)

20

What are density independent factor?

Factors with effects unrelated to population size (natural disasters)

21

What significance does location on the windward or leeward side of a mountain hold?

The windward side receives more rain, while the leeward side doesn't, causing it to be dry and desert-like

22

Define salinity.

The saltiness of a body of water

23

Define temperature.

The degree of heat present

24

Define dissolved oxygen.

The amount of oxygen in a body of water

25

Define euphotic zone.

Later in a body of water that receives enough light for photosynthesis

26

What is the benthic zone?

Later in a body of water that doesn't receive enough light for photosynthesis

27

What is turbidity?

The clarity of water

28

Describe temperature, oxygen concentration, water velocity, nutrient level, and salinity for the source of a river.

Cold, oxygen-rich, low in nutrients, low in salinity, and fast-moving

29

What's the difference between a swamp, marsh, and bog?

A swamp is a wetland with trees, a marsh is a wetland without, and a bog is a wetland characterized by plants that produce an acidic secretion

30

What are the benefits to wetlands?

Biodiversity, flood control, and water pollution control

31

Distinguish between coastal zone, benthic zone, open ocean, and tidal zone?

The coastal and tidal zones have lots of biodiversity and an abundance of sunlight, while the open ocean and benthic zones have less biodiversity.

32

What is the current human population?

7 billion people

33

Identify human population growth curves prior and post industrial revolution.

Before the industrial revolution, the growth curve was linear. After, it was exponential.

34

What is the formula for doubling time?

70/current % growth rate

35

Where is the majority of water found on earth?

Oceans

36

What is the greatest source of freshwater on earth?

Glaciers

37

What accounts for the greatest anthropogenic use of water?

Agricultural irrigation

38

What are the goals of the "Clean Water Act"?

To restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation's waters

39

What are the goals of the "Safe Drinking Water Act"?

To protect the quality of drinking water in the U.S.

40

Why are CO₂, CH₄, H₂O, and NO significant?

They are greenhouse gases

41

Why are chlorofluorocarbons significant?

They destroy ozone

42

What are the effects of global warming on the hydrologic cycle?

Increased evaporation

43

What is the link between acid rain and soil pH?

The more acid rain, the lower the soil pH

44

What are the advantages and disadvantages of solar power?

It is clean and its modules require little maintenance, but it doesn't work in cold, cloudy areas

45

What are the advantages and disadvantages of hydroelectric power?

It's environmentally friendly, but expensive and impacts aquatic life

46

What are the advantages and disadvantages of wind power?

It doesn't cause air pollution and creates jobs, but require lots of wind

47

What are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy?

Clean and requires no fuel, but can't be harnessed everywhere.

48

What are the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power?

It's clean and sustainable, but have dangerous effects

49

What are the advantages and disadvantages of putting ethanol into fuel?

Ethanol is renewable and produces less CO₂ when burned, and can be grown, produced, and distributed locally. It also provides jobs. On the other hand, it's not suitable for use in cold temperatures and can cause a food shortage.

50

How is Brazil considered a leader when it comes to green cars?

Brazil has all its cars able to run on pure ethanol and give consumers the option to use ethanol. The first mass produced flex car was made in Brazil.

51

If an engine was 20% efficient, where would the remaining energy go when the engine was in use?

It would be released as heat

52

During what time period did most of the coal on earth form?

Carboniferous period; world was covered in swamps

53

What makes up the majority of the mass of fossil fuels?

Carbon

54

Explain the general workings of a power plant.

The energy source spins a turbine.

55

What are oil, coal, and natural gas derived from?

Prehistoric plant fossils

56

How are bacterial infections treated?

Antibiotics

57

Determine the most → least toxic substance, given its LD50 value.

The lower the LD50, the more toxic the substance

58

Why is veal paper in color than regular beef?

Because the calf from the veal was raised on a milk-based diet and lacks certain minerals (iron)

59

Why is consumption of ground beef more dangerous than consumption of steak?

Ground beef comes from many different cows, and if when gets a disease, all the meat is infected. Steak comes from only one cow.