Flashcards in The Human Population Deck (23):
What environmental resistance factors were faced by humans during the hunter-gatherer period?
Competition for food and water, predators, and diseases
What about human society changed during the agricultural revolution?
It was the first point where humans moved from a nomadic lifestyle to settling in towns and villages.
What effect did the agricultural revolution have on the population?
What density dependent factors still affected the human population after the agricultural revolution?
Famine and disease
What five new technologies emerged during the industrial revolution?
Electricity, the steam engine, water treatment, antibiotics, and vaccines.
Define infant mortality.
The death rate of newborns
What happened to infant mortality during the industrial revolution?
Define exponential growth.
When population size and its rate of growth increase.
Define doubling time.
An estimate of how long it will take the population to double in size at its current rate of growth.
Equation for doubling time
70/current % growth rate
The study of human populations
Define life expectancy.
How long an average newborn will live in society
Define total fertility rate.
The average number of children a woman will have in her lifetime
Define Gross Domestic Product per capita income.
A measurement of a standard of living
What is the correlation between life expectancy and GDP?
Countries with a larger gross domestic production have larger life expectancies.
When people move out of an area.
When people move into an area
Define pronatalist pressure.
Factors encouraging the birth of children
Define antinatalist pressure.
Factors discouraging the birth of children.
What are the five industrialization stages?
Pre-industrial, early transition, late transition, industrial, post-industrial
Define replacement level
The amount of children necessary to replace the parents
What is the replacement level?