Matter, Energy, and Food Webs Flashcards Preview

Environmental Systems Pre-AP > Matter, Energy, and Food Webs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Matter, Energy, and Food Webs Deck (40):
0

What is the total amount of organic material produced by plants?

Gross primary production

1

What is the amount of biomass that is available to consumers at subsequent tropic levels?

Net primary production

2

What is the amount of biomass at higher graphic levels known as?

Secondary production

3

What is the percentage of energy transferred from one trophic level to the next, that varies between 5% and 20%, called?

Ecological efficiency

4

What is the original source of energy that powers ecosystems?

The sun

5

What law states that the total energy content of a trophic level is only one-tenth of the preceding level?

10% law

6

What is the measure of the total leaf area of a given plant?

Leaf Area Index

7

What is the gain in mass or plant tissue per unit in time known as?

Relative growth rate

8

What is the formula for relative growth rate?

Increase in dry mass per unit in time/
Original dry mass of plant

9

What is the increase in plant weight per unit of leaf area per unit time?

Net Assimilation Rate

10

What is the difference between productivity and production?

Productivity is a rate, whereas production is total energy

11

Why is the net primary production of open ocean ecosystems low in comparison to that of coastal systems?

Water reflects or absorbs much of the sun's energy before it reaches producers.

12

What is the constant mass of a dried plant material?

Standing crop

13

What is the biological origin of coal?

Plant matter

14

What is the biological origin of oil?

Algae

15

What is the biological origin or limestone?

Tiny shells and other bits of skeletons

16

What three processes release carbon into the atmosphere?

Combustion, cellular respiration, and volcanic activity

17

What bacteria fixes atmospheric nitrogen?

Azotobacter

18

What bacteria converts Ammonia to Nitrite?

Nitosomonas sp.

19

What bacteria converts nitrite to nitrate?

Nitrobacter spp.

20

What bacteria releases nitrogen back into the atmosphere?

Denitrifying bacteria

21

What bacteria turn nitrogen back into Ammonia?

Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria

22

What three processes fix atmospheric nitrogen?

Microbial fixation, Haber Process, and lightning.

23

What process releases nitrogen gas into the atmosphere?

Denitrification

24

In what form is most nitrogen available to plants?

Nitrate (NO3)

25

How do animals get the Nitrogen they need?

By eating plants and herbivores

26

Why might farmers plough a crop of legumes into the ground rather than harvest it?

Legumes restore Nitrogen to the soil by increasing bacteria count.

27

What are five ways humans intervene with the Nitrogen cycle?

Haber Process, irrigation and harvesting crops, burning crops, using pesticides, crop rotation.

28

What are the two ways water returns to the oceans from land?

Precipitation and runoff

29

What are three ways humans intervene with the water cycle?

Deforestation, the building of dams, the creation of non-permeable surfaces

30

What is the main reservoir for water on earth?

Oceans

31

What are the earth's main reservoir's for freshwater?

Lakes, aquifers, glaciers, and rivers

32

What role do plants play in the hydrologic cycle?

They transpire, creating humidity.

33

What are two instances in the Phosphorus cycle where bacterial action is important?

Chemical waste and fertilization

34

What are the three forms of inorganic phosphate that make up the geological reservoir?

Rock phosphates, insoluble phosphates, and dissolved phosphates.

35

What must occur to make rock phosphate available to plants?

Weathering

36

What are two ways in which Sulfur can enter the atmosphere from natural sources?

Volcanic activity and hot springs

37

What are two ways in which sulfur can enter the atmosphere as a result of human activity?

Combustion of fossil fuels and smelting

38

What three processes make sulfur available for uptake by plants?

Decomposition of decayed matter, acid precipitation drops sulfate into the soil, conversion of hydrosulfic acid to sulfate by microorganisms.

39

What are two major roles of Sulfur in the biosphere?

Increases the Earth's albedo, makes up key components in proteins