Epilepsy drugs Flashcards Preview

Random First Aid Sections > Epilepsy drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Epilepsy drugs Deck (44):
1

Ethosuximide - mech and indication

1st line: Absence seizures
Blocks T-type Ca channels

2

Ethosuximide - Side Effects

EFGHIJ
Fatigue, GI, Headache, Itching, Stevens-Johnson

3

What do you use for elcampsia seizures?

1st: magnesium
2nd: benzos

4

Phenytoin - mechanism and indiction

Inc. Na channel inactivation
All but absence seizures

5

Side effects of phenytoin

Gingival Hyperplasia
Nystagmus
Megaloblastic anemia
Induces CYP450s
Stevens-Johnson

6

Carbamazepine - mechanisms and indication

Inc. Na channel inactivation
All but absence

7

What do you treat trigeminal neuralgia with?

Carbamazepine

8

Side Effects of Carbamazepine

Blood dyscrasias, Hepatotoxicity,
Induce CYP450
SIADH
Stevens-Johnson

9

Valproic Acid

Inc. Na channel inactivation
All seizures, bipolar disorder

10

Side effects of valproic acid

GI distress, weight gain
Hepatotox - measure LFTs
Neural tube defects in fetus

11

Lamotrigine

Blocks voltage gated Na channels - all seizure types
Stevens Johnson syndrome

12

Stevens Johnson Syndrome

Malaise and fever followed by
Rapid onset of erythematous/purpuric macules
Epidermal skin necrosis and sloughing

13

Valproic acid inhibits __________ absorption

folic acid

14

Barbiturates

Phenobarbital, pentobarbital, secobarbital
Thiopental

15

When are the barbiturates contraindicated?

Porphyria
*CYP Inducer

16

What are the short acting benzos?

Midazolam
Oxazepam
Lorazepam
Triazolam

17

What are the long acting benzos

Chlordiazepoxide
Diazepam

18

How do you treat a benzo overdose?

Flumazenil

19

What are benzos used for?

Anxiety
Spasticity
Status epilepticus
DT (detox)
Night terrors, sleep walking
General anesthetic
Hypnotic

20

What are the non-benzo hynpotics

Zolpidem, Zaleplon, EsZopiclone

21

Flumazenil will reverse what?

Benzos and non-benzo hypnotics

22

Massive centrilobar necrosis seen 2 days - 4 weeks post surgery is indicative of what?

Hepatotoxicity from halothane

23

What drugs can cause Malignant Hyperthermia? How do you treat it?

Inhaled anesthetics (not nitrous)
Succinylcholine
Dantrolene

24

Thiopental

Barbiturate - induction of anesthesia (IV)

25

Midazolam

Benzo - endoscopy (IV)

26

Ketamine

PCP analog - blocks NMDA receptors
Dissociative anesthetic
CV stimulant

27

Propofol

Sedation in ICU - potentiates GABA

28

What is the order of loss of sensation with local anesthetic

Pain, temperature, touch, pressure

29

Amide Local anesthetics

Lidocaine, Mepivicaine, Bupivicaine (2 Is)

30

Ester local anesthetics

Procaine, cocaine, tetracaine

31

How do local anesthetics work?

Block Na channels - rapidly firing neurons - bind activated Na channels

32

What is the order of the nerve blockade?

Small myelinated
Small unmyelinated
Large myelinated
Large unmyelinated

33

What are complictions of succinylcholine?

HyperCa
HyperK
Malignant Hyperthermia

34

What is the only depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drug?

Succinylcholine
Phase I: prolong depol - no antidote
Phase II: repolarized but blocked - cholinesterase inhibitors

35

Tubocurarine, atracurium, mivacurium, "curonium"

Competitive antagonists for ACh receptors
Reverse with Neostigmine + Atropine

36

Dantrolene

Blocks release of Ca from SR of skeletal muscle
Malignant Hyperthermia
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

37

Selegiline

MAO-B inhibitor - metabolizes dopamine - ↑availability of dopamine
Parkinson's - may enhance adverse effects of L-dopa

38

Carbidopa

Inhibits DOPA decarboxylase peripherally

39

Bromocriptine

Dopamine agonist - ergot

40

Pramipexole, ropinirole

Dopaine agonist - non-ergot
*preferred

41

Memantine

NMDA receptor antagonist - prevents excitotoxicity - Alzheimers

42

Tetrabenazine and reserpine

Inhibit VMAT - limit dopamine vesicle packaging and release
Huntington

43

Haloperidol

Dopamine R antagonist - Huntington

44

Sumatriptan

Serotonin IB/ID agonist - inhibits trigeminal nerve activation
Vasoconstriction
Acute migraine and Cluster headaches