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Flashcards in Repro: Embryology Deck (79):
1

What are the 4 important genes of embryogenesis?

Sonic hedgehog - A/P & CNS

Wnt-7 - D/V

FGF - Lengthen limbs

Homeobox (Hox) - Craniocaudal

2

What genes are produces at apical ectodermal ridge (thickened ectoderm at distal end of developing limbs)?

Wnt-7 - D/V

FGF - length

3

Gastrulation

Forms trilaminar embryonic disc (3rd week)

Epiblast invaginating to form primitive streak

4

What structures are formed by the surface ectoderm?

Adenohypophysis (Rathke's pouch)

LensSensory organ of ear

Olfactory and oral cavity epithelium

Epidermis

Parotid, sweat, and mammary glands

5

What does the neuroectoderm form?

CNS: Brain, retina/optic nerve, spinal cord

6

What do neural crest cells form?

PNS (dorsal root ganglia, CN, celiac ganglion, ANS)

Melanocytes

Chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla

Parafollicular cells of thyroid

Pia and arachnoid

Bones of skull

7

What do mesodermal defects cause?

VACTERL

Vertebral defects

Anal atresia

Cardiac defects

Tracheo-Esoaphageal fistula

Renal defects

Limb defects

8

What structures are formed from endoderm?

Gut tube epithelium

Urethra

Luminal epithelial derivatives

9

What is the difference between agenesis and aplasia?

Agenesis: Absent organ due to absent primordial tissue

Aplasia: Absent organ depsite presence or primordial tissue

10

Hypoplasia

Incomplete organ development 

Primordial tissue present

11

What is the difference between Deformation, Disruption, and Malformation?

Deformation: Extrinsic disruption, post embryonic period

Disruption: 2˚ breakdown of previously normal tissue

Malformation: Intrinsic disruption, occurs during embryonic period

12

What is an example of a sequence error?

Oligohydramnios → Potter Sequence

13

When is a developing fetus most susceptible to teratogens?

Embryonic Period (Weeks 3-8)

14

What 3 structures are found in the umbilical cord?

Umbilical arteries (2) - deoxygenated blood from fetal iliac arteries

Umbilical vein - Oxygenated blood

15

Urachus

Duct between fetal bladder and yolk sac

Yolk sacAllantois (extends to UG sinus) → Urachus

 

16

What 3 things can result if the urachus fails to obliterate?

Patent urachus - urine discharge from umbilicus

Urachal cyst - fluid-filled cavity lined w/ uroepithelium between umbilicus and bladder

Vesicourachal diverticulum - outpouching of bladder

17

Viteline duct

Connects yolk sac to midgut lumen

18

If the vitelline duct doesn't completely obliterate (7th week) what can occur?

Vitelline fistula - meconium discharge from umbilicus

Meckel diverticulum - melana, periumbilical pain, ulcers

19

1st aoritc arch forms the ____________.

Maxillary artery

20

2nd aortic arch forms what 2 arteries?

Stapedial and hyoid

21

3rd aortic arch forms what 2 arteries?

Common Carotid

Proxiaml part of Internal Carotid

22

4th aortic arch forms what 2 arteries

L: aortic arch

R: proximal R subclavian

23

6th aortic arch forms what what structures?

Proximal pulmonary arteries

Ductus arteriosus

24

What are the brachial clefts, arches and pouches formed from?

CAP covers outside to insdie

Ectoderm

Mesoderm

Endoder

25

What does the 1st brachial cleft form?

External auditory meatus

26

What do the 2nd-4th brachial clefts form?

Temporary cervical sinuses

**which are obliterated by proliferation of 2nd arch mesenchyme**

27

What does a persistant cervical sinus form?

Brachial cleft cyst - lateral neck

28

What are the symptoms of DiGeorge?

22q11 - aberrant development of 3rd and 4th pouches

T-cell deficiency (thymic aplasia)

Hypocalcemia (failure of parathyroid)

Cardiac defects

29

MEN 2A

RET germline mutation - neural crest

Pheochromocytomas

Parathyroid tumor

Parafollicular cells (medullary thyroid cancer)

30

Cleft lip

Failure of fusion of the maxillary and medial nasal sinus

Formation of 1˚ palate

31

Cleft Palate

Failure of fusion of 2 lateral palatine processes

or

Failulre of fusion of Lateral palatine process w/ nasal septum and/or median palatine process

 

Formation of the 2˚ palate

32

What 3 things are necessary for male development?

SRY gene (Y chromosome)

Mullerian Inhibitory Factor (Sertoli cells)

Androgens (Leydig cells)

33

Paramesonephric duct

Mullerian duct - Develops on default

Fallopian tubes, uterus, and upper 2/3 of vagina

34

Mesonephric duct

Wolffian duct (SEED)

Seminal vesicles, Epididymis, Ejaculatory duct, and Ductus deferens

 

35

What results from an incomplete fusion of the paramesonephric ducts?

Bicornate uterus

Recurrent miscarriages

36

What lymph nodes do the ovaries/testes drain to?

Para-aortic LN

37

What lymph nodes do the distal vagina/vulva/scrotum drain to?

Superficial inguinal

38

What lymph nodes do the proximal vagina/uterus drain to?

Obturator, external iliac, and hypogastric

39

What ligament contains the ovarian vessels?

Infundibulopelvic - suspensory ligament of the ovaries

40

What ligament contains the uterine vessels?

Cardinal ligament (cervix to side of pelvis)

41

What ligament is a derivative of gubernaculum?

Round ligament of the uterus

Uterine fundus to labia majora

42

What structures are contained in the broad ligament?

Ovaries, fallopian tubes, and round ligament of the uterus

43

Ovarian ligament connects what two structures?

Medial pole of ovary to lateral uterus

44

What is the histology of the fallopian tube?

Simple columnar epithelium - many ciliated cells

Few secretory (peg) cells

45

What is the histology of the outer surface of the ovary?

Simple cuboidal epithelium (germinal epithelium covering surface of ovary)

46

What is the pathway of sperm during ejaculation?

SEVEN UP

Seminiferous tubules

Epididymis

Vas Deferens

Ejaculatory ducts

nothing

Urethra

Penis

47

Which cells in the testes does increase in temperature affect?

Sertoli cells

↓sperm production and inhibin

↑ temperature

48

Which of the male non-germ cells secrete androgen-binding protein?

Sertoli - maintain local level of testosterone

Support sperm synthesis

49

What is the order of estrogens in terms of potency?

Estradiol > Estrone > Estriol

50

What 3 places is estrogen synthesized?

Ovary - 17β-estradiol

Placenta - Estriol

Adipose - Estrone

51

What 3 things does estrogen promote the development of?

Female genetalia and breast

Female fat distribution

52

Estrogen induces the upregulation of what 3 receptors? And provides feedback inhibition for what 2 hormones?

ER, PR, and LH receptor

FSH and LH

53

What effect does estrogen have on SHBG, HDL and LDL?

↑ SHBG

↑HDL

↓LDL

54

The fall in _____________ after delivery disinhibits prolactin.

Progesterone

55

What 4 structures can produce progesterone?

Corpus luteum

Placenta

Adrenal cortex

Testes

56

What is tanner stage 2?

Pubic hair appears and breast buds from (thelarche)

57

What is tanner stage 3?

Pubic hair darkens and becomes curly

↑ Penis size/length 

Breasts enlarge

58

Tanner stage 4

↑Penis width

Darker scrotal skin

Development of glans

Raised areolae

59

What is Tanner stage 5?

Adult - areolae are no longer raised

60

What is the differnece between metorrhagia, menorrhagia, and menometrorrhagia?

Metorrhagia: Frequent, irregular bleeding

Menorrhagia: Heavy bleeding

Menometrorrhagia: Heavy irregularly, irregular

61

1˚ oocytes begin meiosis I during _________ and complete meiosis I just prior to ____________.

Fetal life

Ovulation

62

Meiosis I is arrested in ___________ for years.

Prophase I

63

Meiosis II is arrested in _________ until fertilization.

Metaphase II

64

If fertilization does not occur within ______ the 2˚ oocyte degenerates.

1 day!

65

During ovulation:

↑ estrogen, and ↑GnRH receptors on the anterior pituitary

What stimulates the LH surge?

Estrogen

66

Mittelschmerz

Transient mid-cycle ovulatory pain

Peritoneal irritaiton, follicular swelling/rupture, fallopian tube contraction

67

Implantation within the wall of hte uterus occurs ______ after fertilization.

6 days

68

What cells secrete hCG into the blood? How early is this detectable?

Syncytiotrophoblasts

1 week after conception - blood

2 weeks after conception - urine

69

What is the role of prolactin and oxytocin in lactation?

Prolactin: induces and maintains lactation - ↓repro fx

Oxytocin: milk letdown and promotes uterine contractions

 

70

What benefits does breastmilk have for infants?

Maternal IgA, Mφ, lymphocytes

↓fetal infections

↓ risk for child to develop asthma, allergies, diabetes mellitus, and obesity

71

What must be supplemented in exclusively breast fed infants?

Vitamin D

72

What hormonal changes are seen in menopause?

↓Estrogen

↑↑FSH & ↑LH

↑GnRH

73

What are the symptoms seen with menopause?

HAVOCS

Hot flashes

Atrophy of the Vagina

Osteoporosis

CAD

Sleep disturbances

74

Spermatogenesis begins at _______ with spermatogonia

Puberty

75

Where does spermatogenesis occur? How long does it take?

Seminerferous tubules

2 months

76

What 2 things must happen to a spermatid for them to form a mature spermatozoon?

Loss of cytoplasmic contents

Acrosomal cap

**Spermiogenesis**

77

What two organs synthesize androgens?

Testis: DHT and testosterone

Adrenal: Androstenedione

78

What is the order of potency of androgens?

DHT > testosterone > androstenedione

79

What are the functions of testosterone? (5)

Differentiation of epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles

Growth spurt

Deepending of voice

Closing of epiphyseal plates

Libido