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Flashcards in Equine Resp. Sx Deck (31):
1

The limiting factor in a horse's exercise capacity?

Upper airway

2

A cyst located in the dorsolateral aspect of the nasal diverticulum of young horses

2 treatment options

Epidermal inclusion cyst (Atheroma)

surgical removal
10% formalin injection

3

A congenital deforming that causes incongruity of nostrils and nasal septum; prognosis?

Wry nose

poor (sx is difficult & repair may breakdown)

4

Noise and airway obstruction resulting from excess tissue collapsing into the nostril during exercise

Redundant alar folds

5

A 10yr old horse presents for respiratory noise & intermittent, chronic, unilateral epistaxis; endoscopy reveals a smooth, well encapsulated mass; top ddx?

Ethmoid hematoma

*10yr= avg age @ presentation

6

Tx options for ethmoid hematoma if:
1) only nasal involvement
2) sinus involvement

1) laser resection or 10% formalin injection

2) sinusotomy

7

How do primary and secondary sinusitis differ?

Primary--related to respiratory disease

Secondary--usually dental disease (or fracture, neoplasia, etc.)

8

When dealing with sinusitis, it's important to rule out involvement of?

ventral conchal sinus

9

Most common nasal neoplasia of horses?

SCC

10

3 surgical approaches used for surgery of the paranasal sinuses

trephination
bone flaps
sinoscopy

11

Two important structures to avoid with frontonasal bone flaps

nasolacrimal duct
infraorbital nerve & canal

12

A congenital defect caused by failure of the bucconasal membrane to resorb during embryonic development

Choanal atresia

13

This is a disease more commonly seen in aged mares kept on pasture in hot climates; causes expiratory noise and exercise intolerance

Nasopharyngeal cicatrix
(abnormal web of tissue reducing nasal passage diameter)

14

A disease common in young racehorses that usually associated with viral infection or allergens; clinical signs include URT noise and coughing after exercise

Pharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia

15

Two forms of DDSP (dorsal displacement of soft palate)

intermittent (dynamic)
Persistent (present @ rest)

16

Gold standard for diagnosis of DDSP (3 things)

history
PE
dynamic endoscopy

17

5 surgical approaches for management of DDSP

Palatoplasty
Staphylectomy
Standard Myectomy
Minimally invasive myectomy
Laryngeal tie-forward (highest success rate)

18

A minimally invasive myectomy (Llewellyn procedure) involves which muscle?

Sternothryohyoideus

19

Epiglottic retroversion indicates dysfunction of which muscle?

Hypoepiglottis (should keep the epiglottis ventral)

20

Principle muscle for adduction and abduction of the arytenoid

cricoarytenoideus dorsalis

21

3 negative sequelae of being unable to fully abduct arytenoids

reduced diameter of rima glottis (hypoxemia)

hypercaribia (CO2)

metabolic acidosis

22

Describe ventriculectomy

removal of the mucosal lining of the laryngeal ventricle

increases the diameter of the rima glottis--doesn't produce abduction of arytenoids

23

Mucosal injury and subsequent cartilage inflammation that comprises the mobility of the arytenoid cartilages

arytenoid chondropathy

24

Which procedure is not recommended for correction of arytenoid chondropathy?

Prosthetic laryngoplasty (tie-back)

*can get infection assoc. with the sutures

25

Which surgical approach to the guttural pouches is most commonly used? Two advantages of it?

Modified whitehouse

A:
1) can be done on standing horse
2) provides good drainage

26

A progressive disease of the temporohyoid joint that usually occurs secondary to hematogenous spread of bacteria from an ear infection

Temporohyoid osteoarthropathy (THO)

27

A modified forssell procedure is used for what "disease". What muscles are removed (3)?

For cribbing

removal of sternomandibularis, sternothyrohyoideus, and omohyoideus

28

Each procedure allows the greatest access to which sinuses:
1) Maxillary bone flap
2) Frontonasal bone flap

1) rostral and caudal maxillary sinus

2) caudal maxillary and frontal sinuses

29

With a laryngeal tie-forward, sutures are placed between what two structures (for DDSP)

The sutures replace the action of which muscle?

thyroid cartilage and basihyoid bone

Thyrohyoideus

30

A prosthetic laryngoplasty (Tie-back) involves placing sutures between which two structures

muscular process of arytenoid cartilage & cricoid cartilage

31

3 landmarks of Viborg's triangle

1) tendon of sternocephalicus muscle
2) linguofacial vein
3) vertical ramus of mandible