Flashcards in Equine Resp. Sx Deck (31):
The limiting factor in a horse's exercise capacity?
A cyst located in the dorsolateral aspect of the nasal diverticulum of young horses
2 treatment options
Epidermal inclusion cyst (Atheroma)
10% formalin injection
A congenital deforming that causes incongruity of nostrils and nasal septum; prognosis?
poor (sx is difficult & repair may breakdown)
Noise and airway obstruction resulting from excess tissue collapsing into the nostril during exercise
Redundant alar folds
A 10yr old horse presents for respiratory noise & intermittent, chronic, unilateral epistaxis; endoscopy reveals a smooth, well encapsulated mass; top ddx?
*10yr= avg age @ presentation
Tx options for ethmoid hematoma if:
1) only nasal involvement
2) sinus involvement
1) laser resection or 10% formalin injection
How do primary and secondary sinusitis differ?
Primary--related to respiratory disease
Secondary--usually dental disease (or fracture, neoplasia, etc.)
When dealing with sinusitis, it's important to rule out involvement of?
ventral conchal sinus
Most common nasal neoplasia of horses?
3 surgical approaches used for surgery of the paranasal sinuses
Two important structures to avoid with frontonasal bone flaps
infraorbital nerve & canal
A congenital defect caused by failure of the bucconasal membrane to resorb during embryonic development
This is a disease more commonly seen in aged mares kept on pasture in hot climates; causes expiratory noise and exercise intolerance
(abnormal web of tissue reducing nasal passage diameter)
A disease common in young racehorses that usually associated with viral infection or allergens; clinical signs include URT noise and coughing after exercise
Pharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia
Two forms of DDSP (dorsal displacement of soft palate)
Persistent (present @ rest)
Gold standard for diagnosis of DDSP (3 things)
5 surgical approaches for management of DDSP
Minimally invasive myectomy
Laryngeal tie-forward (highest success rate)
A minimally invasive myectomy (Llewellyn procedure) involves which muscle?
Epiglottic retroversion indicates dysfunction of which muscle?
Hypoepiglottis (should keep the epiglottis ventral)
Principle muscle for adduction and abduction of the arytenoid
3 negative sequelae of being unable to fully abduct arytenoids
reduced diameter of rima glottis (hypoxemia)
removal of the mucosal lining of the laryngeal ventricle
increases the diameter of the rima glottis--doesn't produce abduction of arytenoids
Mucosal injury and subsequent cartilage inflammation that comprises the mobility of the arytenoid cartilages
Which procedure is not recommended for correction of arytenoid chondropathy?
Prosthetic laryngoplasty (tie-back)
*can get infection assoc. with the sutures
Which surgical approach to the guttural pouches is most commonly used? Two advantages of it?
1) can be done on standing horse
2) provides good drainage
A progressive disease of the temporohyoid joint that usually occurs secondary to hematogenous spread of bacteria from an ear infection
Temporohyoid osteoarthropathy (THO)
A modified forssell procedure is used for what "disease". What muscles are removed (3)?
removal of sternomandibularis, sternothyrohyoideus, and omohyoideus
Each procedure allows the greatest access to which sinuses:
1) Maxillary bone flap
2) Frontonasal bone flap
1) rostral and caudal maxillary sinus
2) caudal maxillary and frontal sinuses
With a laryngeal tie-forward, sutures are placed between what two structures (for DDSP)
The sutures replace the action of which muscle?
thyroid cartilage and basihyoid bone
A prosthetic laryngoplasty (Tie-back) involves placing sutures between which two structures
muscular process of arytenoid cartilage & cricoid cartilage