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Flashcards in Groover--Equine Resp Dz Deck (38):
1

Primary indication for TTW?

diffuse or focal LOWER airway disease

2

Most common G+ aerobic bacteria causing respiratory disease in horses

Streptococcus equi v. zooepidemicus (commensal)

3

Most common G- aerobic bacteria causing respiratory disease in horses (3)

Klebsiella spp.
E. coli
Pasteurella

4

Most common anaerobic bacteria causing respiratory disease in horses

Bacteroides
Prevotella

*both are G-*

5

When performing a blind BAL, where does the tube usually end up?

R dorsal lung field

6

Best diagnostic test to get a positive bacterial culture in horses with pleuropneumonia

TTW

7

Heaves is a clinical sign commonly associated with? (2 things)

Airway inflammation
bronchoconstriction

8

This disease is typical in young performance horses and clinical signs will NOT be evident when the horse is resting

Inflammatory airway disease (IAD)

9

An expected endoscopy finding in horses with IAD?

airway mucus present following exercise

10

Top 2 diagnostics tests used to confirm IAD?

BAL
Pulmonary function testing (PFT)

11

This disease in common in older horses and re-occurs frequently, typically in a seasonal manner; owner may note husbandry changes (i.e. horse is being stabled more often)

RAO

12

3 main clinical signs seen with RAO

Respiratory difficulty
End expiratory wheezes
cough

*Signs can be present at rest!*

13

RAO is considered to be ________-________ airway obstruction

allergen-induced

*Type I or III hypersensitivity

14

2 best ways to diagnose RAO

BAL (best)
Empircal therapy (response to tx)

15

3 main goals when treating airway inflammation (IAD or RAO)

1) environmental management
2) stopping/preventing inflammation
3) relieve bronchoconstriction

16

Two pharmacological approaches to bronchoconstriction

Corticoteroids (usually Dexamethasone)
Bronchodilators

17

This disease is most common in horses that train in high intensity speed work; they show poor performance and respiratory signs

Exercise induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH)

18

How to DEFINITVELY diagnose EIPH

demonstrate blood in lower airways via:
endoscopy or
BAL/TTW

*best to do shortly after exercise*

19

Describe the pathophysiology steps of bacterial pneumonia in horses (5)

1) compromise of normal resp. defenses
2) colonization by opportunistic bacteria
3) bacteria multiply
4) pulmonary parenchyma becomes inflamed
5) pulmonary parenchyma and endothelium are destroyed

20

3 common causes of respiratory compromise in horses

stress of transport/training

Viral infection (Influenza & EHV-1&4)

aspiration

21

2 complications associated with bacterial pneumonia

Laminitis (most common!!)
Endotoxemia

22

4 risk factors for pleuropneumonia

comingling with transient population

frequent transport over long distances with head tied/elevated

strenuous exercise

poor ventilation (stables or trailer)

23

Pleurodynia and absent ventral lung sounds are indicative of?

Pleuropneumonia

24

What type of bacteria is Rhodococcus equi?

Gram + pleomorphic rod
falcultative intracellular

25

This is a common cause of pneumonia in foals 1-6 months of age; how do they get infected?

Rhodococcus equi;

inhalation

26

The virulence of R. equi is attributed to?

VAP-A (plasmid)

*no pyogranulomatous disease w/o this plasmid*

27

How to definitively diagnose R. equi in a foal?

bacterial culture of TTW

PCR on TTW fluid to find VAP-A plasmid

28

When treating R. equi:
1) what characteristics do you want your antimicrobial to have
2) what is the gold standard
3) Groover's top choice

1) high Vd & G+ spectrum

2) Macrolide paired with rifampin

3) Clarithromycin/rifampin

29

Two common parasites associated with pneumonia in horses

Parascaris equorum (young or debilitated)

Dictyocaulus arnfieldi (donkeys)

30

How is strangles primarily transmitted

direct contact--nasal secretions or fomites

(can survive for a while in the environment)

31

3 virulence factors of Step. equi spp. equi

Hyaluronic acid capsule

M-like protein (SeM)

Leukocidal toxin

32

3 clinical signs that are indicative of strangles

fever
mucopurulent nasal discharge
acute swelling of throatlatch area & abscess formation

33

2 ways to diagnose strangles

1) culture of resp secretions

2) PCR for SeM in respiratory secretions

34

When preventing strangles, which type of vaccine is the best choice?

Who should not get the vaccine?

Attenuated live (MLV)

don't give it horses that have strangles or those that have been exposed

35

Where in the guttural pouch do fungi usually infect?

roof of the medial compartment (where ICA is)

36

Most common isolate with GP mycosis?

Aspergillus spp.

37

Two most common clinical signs associated with GP mycosis?

Epistaxis
dysphagia (CNN deficit)

38

How to definitvely diagnose GP mycosis?

endoscopy of GPs (see fungal plaques)