Flashcards in Groover--Equine Resp Dz Deck (38):
Primary indication for TTW?
diffuse or focal LOWER airway disease
Most common G+ aerobic bacteria causing respiratory disease in horses
Streptococcus equi v. zooepidemicus (commensal)
Most common G- aerobic bacteria causing respiratory disease in horses (3)
Most common anaerobic bacteria causing respiratory disease in horses
*both are G-*
When performing a blind BAL, where does the tube usually end up?
R dorsal lung field
Best diagnostic test to get a positive bacterial culture in horses with pleuropneumonia
Heaves is a clinical sign commonly associated with? (2 things)
This disease is typical in young performance horses and clinical signs will NOT be evident when the horse is resting
Inflammatory airway disease (IAD)
An expected endoscopy finding in horses with IAD?
airway mucus present following exercise
Top 2 diagnostics tests used to confirm IAD?
Pulmonary function testing (PFT)
This disease in common in older horses and re-occurs frequently, typically in a seasonal manner; owner may note husbandry changes (i.e. horse is being stabled more often)
3 main clinical signs seen with RAO
End expiratory wheezes
*Signs can be present at rest!*
RAO is considered to be ________-________ airway obstruction
*Type I or III hypersensitivity
2 best ways to diagnose RAO
Empircal therapy (response to tx)
3 main goals when treating airway inflammation (IAD or RAO)
1) environmental management
2) stopping/preventing inflammation
3) relieve bronchoconstriction
Two pharmacological approaches to bronchoconstriction
Corticoteroids (usually Dexamethasone)
This disease is most common in horses that train in high intensity speed work; they show poor performance and respiratory signs
Exercise induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH)
How to DEFINITVELY diagnose EIPH
demonstrate blood in lower airways via:
*best to do shortly after exercise*
Describe the pathophysiology steps of bacterial pneumonia in horses (5)
1) compromise of normal resp. defenses
2) colonization by opportunistic bacteria
3) bacteria multiply
4) pulmonary parenchyma becomes inflamed
5) pulmonary parenchyma and endothelium are destroyed
3 common causes of respiratory compromise in horses
stress of transport/training
Viral infection (Influenza & EHV-1&4)
2 complications associated with bacterial pneumonia
Laminitis (most common!!)
4 risk factors for pleuropneumonia
comingling with transient population
frequent transport over long distances with head tied/elevated
poor ventilation (stables or trailer)
Pleurodynia and absent ventral lung sounds are indicative of?
What type of bacteria is Rhodococcus equi?
Gram + pleomorphic rod
This is a common cause of pneumonia in foals 1-6 months of age; how do they get infected?
The virulence of R. equi is attributed to?
*no pyogranulomatous disease w/o this plasmid*
How to definitively diagnose R. equi in a foal?
bacterial culture of TTW
PCR on TTW fluid to find VAP-A plasmid
When treating R. equi:
1) what characteristics do you want your antimicrobial to have
2) what is the gold standard
3) Groover's top choice
1) high Vd & G+ spectrum
2) Macrolide paired with rifampin
Two common parasites associated with pneumonia in horses
Parascaris equorum (young or debilitated)
Dictyocaulus arnfieldi (donkeys)
How is strangles primarily transmitted
direct contact--nasal secretions or fomites
(can survive for a while in the environment)
3 virulence factors of Step. equi spp. equi
Hyaluronic acid capsule
M-like protein (SeM)
3 clinical signs that are indicative of strangles
mucopurulent nasal discharge
acute swelling of throatlatch area & abscess formation
2 ways to diagnose strangles
1) culture of resp secretions
2) PCR for SeM in respiratory secretions
When preventing strangles, which type of vaccine is the best choice?
Who should not get the vaccine?
Attenuated live (MLV)
don't give it horses that have strangles or those that have been exposed
Where in the guttural pouch do fungi usually infect?
roof of the medial compartment (where ICA is)
Most common isolate with GP mycosis?
Two most common clinical signs associated with GP mycosis?
dysphagia (CNN deficit)