Flashcards in Exam 2 Lee-Fowler Deck (47):
Term used to describe high levels of CO2 in the blood
This pattern of breathing is characterized by prolonged inspiration, a pause, followed by insufficient expiration.
Where would you localize the problem?
pons or upper medulla
This pattern of breathing is characterized by increasingly rapid breathing followed by a pause
Kussmaul breathing is typically associated with which disease condition?
Metabolic acidosis (deep, semi-rapid breathing to rid body of CO2)
Give 4 potential reasons for decreased BV sounds
low flow (shallow breath)
Give 3 reasons for increased BV sounds
lungs are "wet"
3) contusions (blood)
When are the following sounds normally loudest:
1) inspiration (worse after cough)
Rapid, shallow breaths indicate what type of disease?
Restrictive (lungs can't expand)
Slow, deep breaths indicate what type of disease
obstruction to breathing (i.e. lar par)
1) inspiratory dyspnea
2) expiratory dyspnea
1) upper airway (noisy) or pleural space (quiet)
2) lower airway
3) pulmonary parenchyma
What two components make up physiologic dead space?
Which increases when there is disease?
Alveolar dead space and anatomic dead space
Alveolar increases when there is disease
Name 2 ways the lungs can deal with vascular pressure increases
1) recruitment (open previously closed vessels)
2) distension (hold more blood)
1) 2 primary inspiratory muscles
2) 2 accessory muscles
1) Diaphragm**** & external intercostals
2) scalene & sternomastoids
Which muscles are primarily involved in normal, quiet expiration?
NONE--passive process (recoil of the lungs)
Name the 3 respiratory regulatory centers in the brainstem (pons, medulla)
Medullary respiratory center
Describe the medullary respiratory center
made up of 2 areas:
1) inspiratory area--has intrinsic periodic firing to set the rhythm of ventilation
2) expiratory area (not active during normal breathing)
Which area of the brain is responsible for rate and volume control of inspiration
Where are peripheral chemoreceptors located? What 3 things do they monitor?
Monitor: PO2, PCO2, and pH
Which lung receptors are located in the alveolar walls? What do they respond to?
Respond to pulmonary capillary engorgement and increased interstitial fluid volume
3 factors that determine rate of diffusion of a gas through a tissue
partial pressure difference
primary factor that determines rate of diffusion of gas through a liquid
Hallmark signs of hypoventilation?
increased arterial PCO2
Of the causes of hypoxemia, which is NOT responsive to oxygen therapy?
1) High V/Q
2) Low V/Q
1) high V/Q means there is more ventilation than perfusion to an area. The few RBCs that pass will be highly saturated
2) low V/Q means there is more perfusion than ventilation; lots of RBCs will pass through but won't be fully saturated due to lack of oxygen
A young kitten that presents with stertor and mucopurulent nasal discharge is found to have some type of growth in its pharyngeal area. Top DDx?
The top differential for an older dog or cat that presents with CHRONIC nasal discharge that bloody (+/- facial deformations) would be?
What is the most common nasal neoplasm of dogs
Why should you recommend a CT before beginning treatment for fungal rhinitis in dogs?
to make sure the cribiform plate hasn't been eroded; if it has, you can old use oral meds to treat
Though many of the pathogens of the feline upper respiratory disease complex present with similar signs, each one can give a clue:
3) B. bronchiseptica
4) C. felis
1) oral ulcers
2) dendritic corneal ulcers; salivation
4) severe conjuctivitis
When evaluating for laryngeal paralysis, which medication type is important to avoid?
Pre-meds (also, keep anesthesia light)
If needed, which medication can be used to stimulate deeper breaths for evaluation of laryngeal function
Primary concern for an older large breed dog that presents with inspiratory dyspnea and neurological abnormalities
A small breed, middle age dog that presents with bouts of a harsh, honking cough following excitement that can also be elicited with tracheal palpation is likely to have?
BEST option (most sensitive) for detecting tracheal collapse?
Fluoroscopy (but it's not always available... rads are also okay)
Which diagnostic modality is used for grading tracheal collapse?
Due to the wide variety of infectious agents that can cause infectious tracheobronchitis, which is a good first medication to start with?
Two key features of feline asthma
eosinophilic airway inflammation
smooth muscle contraction and airway narrowing
Though useful in treating feline asthma, this class of drugs should not be used a sole therapy
bronchodilators (it only treats signs, not the cause)
Common parasites of the airway in:
1) dogs only
2) cats only
3) dog or cat
1) Filaroides, O. osleri
2) A. abstrusus
3) Capillaria, Cuterebra
A young animal with recurring infections (i.e. pneumonias, bronchitis, rhinits, etc.) may potentially have?
A unique test to evaluate for ciliary dyskinesia
Technetium scan--inject bolus into the lungs and watch to see if it can be cleared
Most common radiographic change seen with bacterial pneumonia?
alveolar pattern with ventral distribution
Though many of the fungal pneumonias present similarly, this one can impact the GI system and lead to significant weight loss
Aspiration pneumonia usually impacts which areas of the lung?
right cranial lobe
right middle lobe
cranial portion of the left cranial lung lobe
Loud crackles are typically auscultated with which two diseases?
Two negative sequale of pulmonary thromboembolism