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Flashcards in Exam 2 Lee-Fowler Deck (47):
1

Term used to describe high levels of CO2 in the blood

hypercapnia

2

This pattern of breathing is characterized by prolonged inspiration, a pause, followed by insufficient expiration.

Where would you localize the problem?

apneustic breathing

pons or upper medulla

3

This pattern of breathing is characterized by increasingly rapid breathing followed by a pause

Cheyne-stokes respiration

4

Kussmaul breathing is typically associated with which disease condition?

Metabolic acidosis (deep, semi-rapid breathing to rid body of CO2)

5

Give 4 potential reasons for decreased BV sounds

low flow (shallow breath)
retraction
attenuation (air)
reflection (mass)

6

Give 3 reasons for increased BV sounds

lungs are "wet"
1) edema
2) pneumonia
3) contusions (blood)

7

When are the following sounds normally loudest:
1) crackles
2) Wheezes

1) inspiration (worse after cough)

2) expiration

8

Rapid, shallow breaths indicate what type of disease?

Restrictive (lungs can't expand)

9

Slow, deep breaths indicate what type of disease

obstruction to breathing (i.e. lar par)

10

Localize:
1) inspiratory dyspnea
2) expiratory dyspnea
3) mixed

1) upper airway (noisy) or pleural space (quiet)

2) lower airway

3) pulmonary parenchyma

11

What two components make up physiologic dead space?

Which increases when there is disease?

Alveolar dead space and anatomic dead space

Alveolar increases when there is disease

12

Name 2 ways the lungs can deal with vascular pressure increases

1) recruitment (open previously closed vessels)

2) distension (hold more blood)

13

For inhalation:
1) 2 primary inspiratory muscles
2) 2 accessory muscles

1) Diaphragm**** & external intercostals

2) scalene & sternomastoids

14

Which muscles are primarily involved in normal, quiet expiration?

NONE--passive process (recoil of the lungs)

15

Name the 3 respiratory regulatory centers in the brainstem (pons, medulla)

Medullary respiratory center

Apneustic Center

Pneumotaxic center

16

Describe the medullary respiratory center

made up of 2 areas:
1) inspiratory area--has intrinsic periodic firing to set the rhythm of ventilation

2) expiratory area (not active during normal breathing)

17

Which area of the brain is responsible for rate and volume control of inspiration

Pneumotaxic center

18

Where are peripheral chemoreceptors located? What 3 things do they monitor?

carotid bodies
aortic body

Monitor: PO2, PCO2, and pH

19

Which lung receptors are located in the alveolar walls? What do they respond to?

J receptors

Respond to pulmonary capillary engorgement and increased interstitial fluid volume

20

3 factors that determine rate of diffusion of a gas through a tissue

surface area
tissue thickness
partial pressure difference

21

primary factor that determines rate of diffusion of gas through a liquid

solubility

22

Hallmark signs of hypoventilation?

increased arterial PCO2

23

Of the causes of hypoxemia, which is NOT responsive to oxygen therapy?

Shunting

24

Contrast:
1) High V/Q
2) Low V/Q

1) high V/Q means there is more ventilation than perfusion to an area. The few RBCs that pass will be highly saturated

2) low V/Q means there is more perfusion than ventilation; lots of RBCs will pass through but won't be fully saturated due to lack of oxygen

25

A young kitten that presents with stertor and mucopurulent nasal discharge is found to have some type of growth in its pharyngeal area. Top DDx?

Nasopharyngeal polyp

26

The top differential for an older dog or cat that presents with CHRONIC nasal discharge that bloody (+/- facial deformations) would be?

Neoplasia

27

What is the most common nasal neoplasm of dogs

adenocarcioma

28

Why should you recommend a CT before beginning treatment for fungal rhinitis in dogs?

to make sure the cribiform plate hasn't been eroded; if it has, you can old use oral meds to treat

29

Though many of the pathogens of the feline upper respiratory disease complex present with similar signs, each one can give a clue:
1) FCV
2) FHV
3) B. bronchiseptica
4) C. felis

1) oral ulcers
2) dendritic corneal ulcers; salivation
3) coughing
4) severe conjuctivitis

30

When evaluating for laryngeal paralysis, which medication type is important to avoid?

Pre-meds (also, keep anesthesia light)

31

If needed, which medication can be used to stimulate deeper breaths for evaluation of laryngeal function

Dopram

32

Primary concern for an older large breed dog that presents with inspiratory dyspnea and neurological abnormalities

laryngeal paralysis

33

A small breed, middle age dog that presents with bouts of a harsh, honking cough following excitement that can also be elicited with tracheal palpation is likely to have?

Tracheal collapse

34

BEST option (most sensitive) for detecting tracheal collapse?

Fluoroscopy (but it's not always available... rads are also okay)

35

Which diagnostic modality is used for grading tracheal collapse?

Bronchoscopy

36

Due to the wide variety of infectious agents that can cause infectious tracheobronchitis, which is a good first medication to start with?

Doxycycline

37

Two key features of feline asthma

eosinophilic airway inflammation
smooth muscle contraction and airway narrowing

38

Though useful in treating feline asthma, this class of drugs should not be used a sole therapy

bronchodilators (it only treats signs, not the cause)

39

Common parasites of the airway in:
1) dogs only
2) cats only
3) dog or cat

1) Filaroides, O. osleri

2) A. abstrusus

3) Capillaria, Cuterebra

40

A young animal with recurring infections (i.e. pneumonias, bronchitis, rhinits, etc.) may potentially have?

Ciliary Dyskinesia

41

A unique test to evaluate for ciliary dyskinesia

Technetium scan--inject bolus into the lungs and watch to see if it can be cleared

42

Most common radiographic change seen with bacterial pneumonia?

alveolar pattern with ventral distribution

43

Though many of the fungal pneumonias present similarly, this one can impact the GI system and lead to significant weight loss

Histoplasmosis

44

Aspiration pneumonia usually impacts which areas of the lung?

right cranial lobe
right middle lobe
cranial portion of the left cranial lung lobe

45

Loud crackles are typically auscultated with which two diseases?

Pulmonary Fibrosis

Pulmonary edema

46

Two negative sequale of pulmonary thromboembolism

V/Q mismatch
Pulmonary hypertension

47

The only definitive way to diagnose pulmonary fibrosis

Biopsy